Unit 2 Ecology Review

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170 Terms

1

metapopulation

a set of spatially isolated populations linked by dispersal of individuals or gametes

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2

metapopulations are characterized by repeated _______ and _______ of the small individual populations

extinctions, colonizations

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3

source

the number of individuals that disperse to other populations is greater than the number of migrants they receive (place where population is doing well)

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4

emigration > migration

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sink

receive more migrants than the number of individuals that disperse to other populations (where organism goes to die pretty much)

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6

migration > migration

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metapopulation dynamics (high migration)

causes the metapopulation to behave as a single, large population

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8

metapopulation dynamics (intermediate migration)

colonization of patches left open by subpopulation extinction, mosaic of occupied and unoccupied patches

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9

metapopulation dynamics (no migration)

each subpopulation becomes isolated and at risk of extinction

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10

dp/dt = cp(1-p) - ep

extinction and colonization of patches

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11

p = proportion of habitat patches occupied at time t

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12

c = patch colonization rate

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e = patch extinction rate

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c > e for metapopulation to persist

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15

isolation by distance

when patches are too far apart

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16

effect of patch size

small patches may be hard to find and have high extinction rates

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17

rescue effect

High rates of immigration that protect a population from extinction

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18

extinction can be caused by what two reasons for metapopulations?

  1. Patchiness in habitat makes dispersal from other populations difficult

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19
  1. Environmental conditions changing rapidly + in unpredictable manner

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20

T/F All populations form metapopulations

False

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21

What happens if e/c > 1 what will happen in metapopulation?

metapopulation will go extinct

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22

Habitat Fragmentation example

Spotted owls became Northern spotted owl, Mexican spotted owl, and California spotted owl because of isolated patches

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23

Isolation by distance + effect of patch size example

Skipper butterflies- cows stopped grazing leading to loss of grass land leading to smaller + isolated patches making them less likely to be colonized by more butterflies to persist

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24

effect of patch size example (unaffected by isolation)

Shrews- live on islands in lakes, island occupancy is strongly affected by island size, but unaffected by isolation because they are such strong swimmers

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habitat fragmentation

Breakup of a habitat into smaller pieces, usually as a result of human activities, turns populations into metapopulations and into isolated populations no longer linked by dispersal

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26

life history characteristics

-age and size at sexual maturity

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27

-amount and timing of reproduction

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-survival and mortality rates

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overall pattern of life history:

growth, reproduction survival

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30

What do differences in life history come from?

genetic and environmental variation

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31

optimal life histories maximize _________

fitness

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32

fitness

Ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in its environment

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33

metamorphosis

abrupt transition in form between larval and juvenile stages

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-different body forms, habitats, and food

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ex: caterpillar to butterfly, tadpole to frog

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phenotypic plasticity

our genotype produces different phenotypes under different environmental conditions

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phenotypic plasticity example

trees in the desert grow shorter and with smaller leaves than in cool, moist climates

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Polymorphism

The existence of more than one form of a genetic trait.

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example of morphs

tadpoles

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40

omnivore morph- grow slowly, metamorphose later w/ higher chance of survival, permanent ponds

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carnivore morph- grow faster, metamorphosize earlier, temporary ponds

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42

asexual reproduction

cell division (binary fission) done by all prokaryotes and most protists

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43

sexual reproduction

most plants, animals and many fungi + protists

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3 disadvantages of sexual reproduction

-an individual transmits only half of its genome to the next generation

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-population growth rate is only half that of asexually reproducing species

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-recombination and chromosome assortment during meiosis can break up favorable gene combinations

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advantage of sexual reproduction

recombination promotes genetic variation and increased ability of populations to respond to environmental challenges

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the cost of males meaning

asexual reproduction produces twice as many offspring as sex

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49

semelparous

species that reproduce only once

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50

iteroparous

species can reproduce multiple times

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r

intrinsic rate of increase of a population

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K

carrying capacity of a population

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r-selection

selection for high population growth rates; an advantage in newly disturbed habitats and uncrowded condition

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-short life spans

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-rapid development

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-early maturation

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-low parental investment

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-high reproductive rates

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K-selection

selection for lower growth rates in populations that are at or near K; an advantage in crowded conditions; efficient reproduction is favored

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-long life spans

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-develop slowly

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-late maturation

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-high parental investment

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-low reproductive rates

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gradient between r and K species

oysters ---> frogs ---> gorillas

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life history trade-offs

large investment in offspring but few offspring

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lots of offspring but little parental investment and lower survival

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large offspring but few offspring

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small offspring but many offspring

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if there is a trade-off between reproduction and growth rate, then:

the more offspring you produce, the shorter your lifespan

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72

trade-off between reproduction and survival

higher fecundity = lower survival

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73

population abundance

number of individuals

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population density

Number of individuals per unit area

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75

on a 20-hectare island, there 2500 lizards. What is the population density?

125 hectare^-1

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76

isolated patches can be linked by ________

dispersal / gene flow

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77

clones are formed by

budding, apomixis (unfertilized eggs), horizontal spread (likes trees, offspring produced as organism grows)

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abiotic factors that limit distribution

water, temperature, pH, sunlight, nutrients, etc.

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biotic factors that limit distribution

predation, parasitism, competition, disease

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dispersal limitation

A situation in which a species' limited capacity for dispersal prevents it from reaching other areas

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81

population

group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area

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geographic range

the entire geographic area over which a species is found including all of its life stages (migration)

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Nearly Regular Distribution

due to competition for resources

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Random distribution

due to short dispersal distances or targeted resource availability

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Clumped distribution

due to short dispersal distances or targeted resource availability

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-ex: trees clumped around water source

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absolute population size

the actual number of individuals in a population

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relative population size

number of individuals in one time period or place relative to the number in another

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area-based counts

individuals in a given area or volume are counted and averaged to estimate population size

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-usually quadrats

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-for immobile organisms (ex: coral)

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92

40, 10, 70, 80, and 50 cinch bugs are counted in five 10 cm x 10 cm (0.01 m2) quadrats. What is the population density per m^2?

5000 m^2

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(40 + 10 + 70 + 80 + 50) / 5 = 50 / 0.01 m^2 = 5000 m^-2

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distance methods

distances of individuals from a line or point are converted into estimates of abundance

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-used for large area

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line transects

Observer travels along line and counts individuals and their distance from the line

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mark-recapture studies

A subset of individuals is captured and marked or tagged, then released.

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At a later date, individuals are captured again, and the ratio of marked to unmarked individuals is used to estimate population size.

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99

-used for mobile organisms (ex: fish)

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-more organisms recaptured is an indicator of small population size

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