3.) Sensation and Perception

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148 Terms

1

Sensation

The process of attending to and taking in stimuli from the environment.

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2

Perception

The interpretation and organization of sensory information.

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3

Biopsychosocial (Model)

The model that describes how sensation and perception has biological, psychological, and social elements.

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Bottom Up (Processing)

Perceptual processing where the brain pieces together all incoming stimuli, then makes a decision on what it is perceiving.

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Top Down (Processing)

Perceptual processing that is based on higher level knowledge, expectation, and memory.

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Sensation

Bottom Up Processing relies more on _____________________(Sensation/Perception).

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Perception

Top Down Processing relies more on _____________________(Sensation/Perception).

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Perceptual Set

The phenomenon that describes how our expectations greatly influence our experience. AKA Perceptual Expectancy.

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Top Down

Perceptual Set is a major factor in __________ __________ (Top Down/Bottom Up) Processing.

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(Wilhelm) Wundt

The Father of Modern Psychology, having opened the first experimental Psych lab to study psychophysics.

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Psychophysics

The study of the links between physical stimuli in the world and the psychological experience of those stimuli.

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12

Smell

All senses are directly routed to the Thalamus EXCEPT: ______________.

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13

Transduction

The conversion of one type of energy to another.

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Sensory Adaptation

The process of Receptor Cells becoming less receptive or responsive after prolonged exposure to a constant stimulus.

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Habituation

When the Brain stops paying attention to things that don't change. However, as soon as that thing changes, it grabs your attention.

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Sensation

Sensory Adaptation is more related to a change in _________________(Sensation/Perception).

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Perception

Habituation is more related to a change in _________________(Sensation/Perception).

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18

Absolute Threshold

The minimum amount of a stimulus one can detect 50% of the time it's present.

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19

Subliminal Message(s)

Information below the Absolute Threshold of detection that the brain can Receive but does not Perceive.

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Signal Detection (Theory)

A theory that categorizes whether or not people respond to a stimulus.

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Hit

In Signal Detection Theory, if the signal was present and the person did respond, this would be considered a ___________.

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False Alarm

In Signal Detection Theory, if the signal was NOT present and the person did respond, this would be considered a ___________.

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Miss

In Signal Detection Theory, if the signal was present and the person did NOT respond, this would be considered a ___________.

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Correct Rejection

In Signal Detection Theory, if the signal was NOT present and the person did NOT respond, this would be considered a ___________.

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Difference Threshold

The minimum amount of difference between two stimuli that one can detect 50% of the time (AKA Just Noticeable Difference).

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Weber(')s Law

This states that the size of the Difference Threshold tends to be a constant Proportion and not Amount to the initial stimulus.

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Greater

According to Weber's Law, the ___________(Smaller/Greater) the Initial Stimulus, the More it would have to change to be noticeable.

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28

Cornea

The Outer Layer of the eye for Protection, which also is the first line of focusing light inwards.

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Pupil(s)

The hole in the center of the eye that lets light through.

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Iris(es)

The muscle in the eye with a color pigment that shrinks and dilates the pupil.

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Lens(es)

The part of the eye that changes shape to focus light on to the Retina.

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Cataract(s)

A condition of the lens in the eye that causes it to become cloudy.

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Retina(s)

The back of the eye that houses the rods and the cones and is where sensation occurs.

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Rod(s)

The Visual Receptors that see in Black and White.

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Cone(s)

The Visual Receptors that see in Color.

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Rod(s)

_______________ Comprise the Vast Majority of all Visual Receptors on the Retina.

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Fovea

The place of greatest clarity and acuity on the Retina.

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Cone(s)

Almost All of the _______________(Rod/Cone) receptors in the eye are located in the Fovea.

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T(rue)

True/False: There are NO Rods in the Fovea.

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Rod(s)

Almost All of the ________________(Rod/Cone) receptors in the eye are located in the Peripheral Visual Field.

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41

Accomodation

The process of changing the shape of the lens with its surrounding muscles to change the focal length.

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Close

The Lens would Thicken to focus on objects that are ______________(Close/Far).

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Far

The Lens would Flatten to focus on objects that are ______________(Close/Far).

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Blind Spot

The part of the retina Devoid of Receptors where the optic nerve exits the eye.

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45

Dark Adaptation

The process of rods and cones adjusting to the darkening of a room.

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Slower

Dark Adaptation in the eyes generally is _______________(Slower/Faster) than Light Adaptation.

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Faster

Light Adaptation in the eyes generally is _______________(Slower/Faster) than Dark Adaptation.

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48

Bipolar (Cells)

These cells in the Retina Combine signals from multiple Rods and Cones and send them to Ganglion Cells.

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Ganglion (Cells)

These cells in the Retina Combine signals from multiple Bipolar Cells and send them along the Optic Nerve.

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Optic Nerve

The Axons of the Ganglion Cells in the Retina that carry the Visual Neural message to the Thalamus.

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51

(Primary) Visual Cortex

The portion of the brain in the occipital lobe responsible for processing visual information.

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Fovea

There is a 1:1 ratio of Cones to Ganglion Cells in the _______________.

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53

Peripheral (Vision)

Vision that extends beyond the central Visual Field outwards towards the ears and cannot sense color well.

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54

(Gestalt Principle of) Closure

This states that the Brain does not like Gaps in Perception, so it will Contextually fill them in.

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55

Trichromatic (Theory)

A theory that states there are Three different types of cones for Red, Green, and Blue (AKA - Young-Helmholz Theory).

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White

In Trichromatic Theory, the combination of Red, Green, and Blue would cause perception of what color?

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57

Opponent Process (Theory)

A visual theory that states that cones are linked together to form Opposing Color Pairs that inhibit each other and, once relieved, can leave an afterimage of the opposing color.

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Green

According to the Opponent Process Theory of color vision, if you stare at something Red for a while, looking at a white surface will leave a ____________(Color) Afterimage.

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Blue

According to the Opponent Process Theory of color vision, if you stare at something Yellow for a while, looking at a white surface will leave a ____________(Color) Afterimage.

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Black

According to the Opponent Process Theory of color vision, if you stare at something White for a while, stopping that stimulus will leave a ____________(Color) Afterimage.

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61

Color Blindness

A visual deficiency where one usually lacks a certain cone receptor and cannot sense one of the three RGB colors.

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62

Achromatic

Someone who can only see in Black and White has vision that is said to be _______________.

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63

Gustation

The alternate word to describe the sense of Taste.

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64

Olfaction

The alternate word to describe the sense of Smell.

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65

Papillae

Clusters of taste receptors (buds) on the tongue.

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66

Umami

The relatively recently discovered taste that can be sensed by humans that is often described as Savory and linked with foods with MSG and that are rich in Protein.

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T(rue)

True/False: Taste receptor cells regrow if damaged.

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F(alse)

True/False: Taste receptor cells are Only located on the Tongue.

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69

Supertaster(s)

The word used to describe the ~25% of people who have Above average Papillae Density on their tongues, which leads to Heightened taste sensitivity.

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Nontaster(s)

The word used to describe the ~25% of people who have Less than average Papillae Density on their tongues, which leads to a Less Sensitive sense of taste.

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Women

____________(Women/Men) are More likely to be Supertasters, for evolutionary reasons.

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50

Around ___% of people are Medium Tasters - in between Super and Non.

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Nontasters

Places of Historic Famine are more likely to be ___________________(Supertasters/Nontasters).

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74

Olfactory Bulb

The place where Olfactory Receptors are located.

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Olfactory Nerve

The major neural connection between the Olfactory Receptors and the Olfactory Cortex.

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Memory

Smell is thought to be so highly linked to ______________ because the Olfactory System is wired to the brain right near the Limbic System (Hippocampus/Amygdala).

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77

Anosmia

The loss of the sense of smell.

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78

Touch

The sense of __________ involves numerous types of receptors for pressure, pain, temperature, and more located under the skin.

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79

Gate Control (Theory)

The theory that describes how Fast "Alerting" nerves of the surrounding inflicted area have the ability to inhibit the Slow "Pain Sending" nerves momentary at the Spinal Gate.

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Spinal Gate

A loose term to describe the Location in the nervous system where Gate Control Theory applies and takes place.

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81

A Delta (Fibers)

Another name for the Fast fibers in Gate Control Theory.

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C (Fibers)

Another name for the Slow fibers in Gate Control Theory.

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83

Myelin

The Fast fibers in Gate Control Theory are faster because they are Sheathed in __________________.

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84

Selective Attention

The capacity for the brain to, when receiving Multiple Stimuli, Selectively Focus some attention to one stimulus. The brain is Still Aware of the other stimulus (AKA - Divided Attention).

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85

Dichotic Listening

A type of Selective Attention where, when presented with Multiple Auditory Stimuli, the brain can choose to focus on just one or many of them.

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Dichotic Viewing

A type of Selective Attention where, when presented with Multiple Visual Stimuli, the brain can choose to focus on just one or many of them.

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87

Cocktail Party Effect

The ability to easily attend to one voice in a noisy Social Setting. However, if your name is called from across the room, it would instantly grab your attention even though you hadn't been paying direct attention.

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88

Inattentional Blindness

When the brain selectively attends to something in the environment and often Misses or is Blind to other incoming stimuli.

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Change Blindness

A type of Inattentional Blindness where the brain fails to notice Changes in its environment.

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90

Olfactory Cortex

The brain areas located in the Temporal Lobes that process olfactory input. They are wired closely with the Hippocampus and Amygdala.

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91

Pheromones

Chemically produced odors that send signals to other members of that species.

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92

Somatosensory Cortex

The brain area located in the Parietal Lobe that processes Touch information for different body parts.

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93

Kinesthetic (Sense)

The sense that tells you where your body parts are and whether they are moving and contains receptors in the joints.

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Proprioceptor(s)

Specialized Sensory Neurons found in Joints, Tendons, and Muscles that give information regarding the Position of individual body parts and Movement.

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95

Vestibular (Sense)

The sense that measures balance and whole body positioning in fluid-filled semicircular canals in the inner ear.

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96

Synesthesia

The experience of one sense in terms of another (Ex: Hearing Colors).

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97

Schema

A Framework we have in our heads for what we expect something to be based on our prior experiences.

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98

Context

The Surrounding Information of something that can inform attributes of that thing.

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99

Contrast Effect

A change in perception of something in comparison to its normal perception when placed in Contrasting environments.

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100

Law of Pragnanz

The tendency of the Brain to organize patterns in the Simplest way possible.

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