Exam 4

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TRUE OR FALSE: Hair cells can be replaced if they are damaged

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Biology

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1

TRUE OR FALSE: Hair cells can be replaced if they are damaged

False

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2

TRUE OR FALSE: Hair cells release neurotransmitter/paracrine agent in bursts in time with the vibrations in the basilar membrane

True

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3

TRUE OR FALSE: If you are moving at a constant velocity, your ears give you the sensation that you are not moving

True

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4

TRUE OR FALSE: In the utricle, all the hair cells are oriented with their kinocilium toward one side of the body

False

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5

TRUE OR FALSE: Sound waves are waves of more pressurized and less pressurized air

True

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6

TRUE OR FALSE: Sound waves are caused by vibrations

True

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7

The faster something vibrates, the ________the perceived sound

Higher pitched

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8

The larger the pressure difference between the compressed and rarified air in a sound wave, the _________the perceived sound

Louder

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9

Vestibular information is used in reflexes to control...

Both eye muscles and postural muscles

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10

Horizontal acceleration is detected in the ...

Utricle

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11

In the light, on-center bipolar cells are...

depolarized

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12

On-center bipolar cells have...

mGluR6

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13

The scala tympani is filled with ________, which is high in _________.

perilymph, sodium

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14

what is true about the sides of the brain? (what side is visual stuff processed)

all the information from the left visual field is processed on the right side of the brain

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15

You would see the highest frequency of action potentials in a off-center ganglion cell when there is...

light in the surround and dark in the center

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16

glutamate causes on-center bipolar cells to....

hyperpolarize

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17

glutamate causes on-center ganglion cells to...

fire more action potentials

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18

glutamate causes off-center bipolar cells to...

depolarize

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19

TRUE OR FALSE: all ganglion cells have APMA receptors

true

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20

TRUE OR FALSE: the center-surround relationship in the retina gives us a greater ability to see a lion hiding in the grass

true

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21

the visual cortex is in the...

occipital lobe

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22

the organ of Corti sits on the...

basilar membrane

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23

the basilar membrane is...

wide near the apex and narrow near the base

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24

TRUE OR FALSE:Farmed fruit is much sweeter than wild fruit

True

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25

TRUE OR FALSE: taste cells can be replaced (they are epithelial)

True

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26

TRUE OR FALSE: olfactory neurons can be replaced

True

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27

Taste cells are…what kind of cell

Epithelial cells

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28

TRUE OR FALSE: There are several scientific studies to show that mono sodium glutamate (MSG) has negative effects in the body

False

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29

The sour receptor is…..

An ion channel

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30

The best characterized receptor for umami is….

A Gi protein coupled receptor

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31

Third order neurons in the taste pathway synapse in the…

Parietal lobe

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32

The olfactory epithelium is…

Nervous tissue

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33

TRUE OR FALSE: We have about 10,000 different odorant receptors

False (we have 1000)

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34

TRUE OR FALSE: Sound waves are waves of compressed and rarefied air.

true

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35

TRUE OR FALSE: The stapedius and tensor tympani can protect your auditory hair cells from sudden, loud noises.

false

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36

TRUE OR FALSE: Stopping a constant forward motion feels the same to the vestibular system as starting a backward motion.

true

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37

Opening a potassium channel in a hair cell cause the cell to...

depolarize

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38

The vestibular cortex is in the...

parietal lobe

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39

TRUE OR FALSE: the semi-circular canals are all at right angles to each other...

true

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40

TRUE OR FALSE: there are action potentials being fired in vestibular afferents when the stereocilia of a vestibular hair cell are pointing straight up

true

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41

TRUE OR FALSE: there is a form of lateral inhibition in the auditory system

true

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42

higher frequency sound waves cause the basilar membrane closer to the ______to vibrate

oval window

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43

our sensation of sound comes from the activation of_______

inner hair cells

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44

when the stereocilia of an auditory hair cell are deflected toward the tallest stereocilia

the tip links pull on the potassium channels

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45

when the stereocilia of an auditory hair cell are deflected toward the tallest stereocilia

the hair cells depolarizes

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46

head tilt is detected in the...

utricle

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47

the ________ tells you if you are falling

saccule

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48

hair cells release...

glutamate

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49

the stereocilia of auditory hair cells project toward the ______ membrane

tectorial

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50

if the semi-circular canal above started to spin in a counter-clockwise direction, the stereocilia of the hair cells in the cupula would...

be deflected to the left

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51

if the semi-circular canal above continued to spin in a counterclockwise direction at the same angle and speed, after a few seconds the stereocilia of the hair cells in the cupula would...

not be deflected

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52

if the semi-circular canal above suddenly stopped a counter-clockwise rotation, the stereocilia of the hair cells in the cupula would...

be deflected to the right

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53

what brain location is responsible for the reflex of a sudden loud sound causing a person to look toward the sound?

inferior colliculus

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54

some people feel motion sickness when there is a disconnect between which two senses?

vestibular and vision

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55

what 3 things does the vestibular system detect?

head tilt, acceleration, falling

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56

what 3 senses give us our sense of posture and movement?

vestibular, vision, proprioceptors

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57

A lack of ATP in a skeletal muscle cell will cause which of the following...

Calcium levels to rise in the cell, the myosin head to stay bound to actin

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58

Which of the following is connected to the z disk in skeletal muscle?

Actin and titin

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59

Which if the following can you find in the I band?

Actin and the Z disk

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60

Which of the following can you find in the A band?

Actin, myosin, H zone, and M line

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61

You are more likely to injure a muscle with ________contractions

Eccentric

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62

If the load on a skeletal muscle is less than the tension developed by that muscle, you get _______ contraction

Concentric

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63

If the load on a skeletal muscle is greater than the tension developed by that muscle, you get ________ contraction.

Eccentric

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64

If the load on a skeletal muscle is the same as the tension developed by that muscle, you get _______ contraction.

isometric

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65

TRUE OR FALSE: A single action potential in an alpha motor neuron is sufficient to cause an action potential in a skeletal muscle fiber.

True

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66

TRUE OR FALSE: Calcium must come through L-type calcium channels in order for ryanodine receptors to open in skeletal muscle cells

False

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67

TRUE OR FALSE: A single odorant usually only activates one type of olfactory receptor.

false

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68

TRUE OR FALSE: The bumps you see on your tongue are the taste buds.

false

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69

Actin is found in the....

thin myofilament

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70

The best understood receptors for bitter taste are...

a Gq protein coupled receptor

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71

The sweet receptor is...

a Gs protein coupled receptor

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72

TRUE OR FALSE: The actin and myosin myofilaments shorten during contraction.

False

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73

The myosin head binds to actin when it is...

phosphorylated

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74

The I subunit of troponin binds to...

actin

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75

Alpha motor neurons release...

acetylcholine (ACh)

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76

What is the name of the large protein that attaches myosin to the Z disk?

Titin

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77

TRUE OR FALSE: The action potential in a skeletal muscle fiber is over before the muscle starts to contract

True

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78

Frequency coding is based on…

Higher calcium levels in the skeletal muscle cell

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79

TRUE OR FALSE: The level of calcium in the cytoplasm of a skeletal muscle cell is constant when the cell is in fused tetanus

False

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80

TRUE OR FALSE: the heavier the load, the more myosin heads involved in cross-bridge cycling

False

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81

TRUE OR FALSE: The use of fatty acids to generate ATP always requires oxygen

True

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82

Fast-glycolytic fibers are also called…

Type 2b fibers

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83

Fast-oxidative-glycolytic fibers are also called…

Type 2a fibers

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84

Slow-oxidative fibers are also called…

Type 1 fibers

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85

Increasing the concentration of potassium in the T-tubule would cause the action potentials in the T-tubules to…

Repolarize slower

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86

TRUE OR FALSE: It is normal for muscles to go into tetanus.

true

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87

TRUE OR FALSE: The shorter the muscle is when it contracts, the more force it will generate.

false

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88

TRUE OR FALSE: The velocity of muscle shortening decreases as the load increases.

true

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89

TRUE OR FALSE: In general, white meat should be slightly sweeter than dark meat.

true

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90

The thin myofilament in smooth muscle does NOT contain...

troponin

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91

TRUE OR FALSE: activation of odorant receptors leads to activation of protein kinase A and phosphorylation of a non-specific cation channel

false

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92

TRUE OR FALSE: most of our sense of taste comes from activation of olfactory receptors

true

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93

TRUE OR FALSE: olfactory hairs are normally covered in mucas

true

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94

TRUE OR FALSE: one neuron will innervate several skeletal muscle fibers

true

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95

TRUE OR FALSE: one skeletal muscle fiber will be innervated by several neurons

false

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96

TRUE OR FALSE: one type of ODORANT RECEPTOR will bind more than one type of odorant

true

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97

TRUE OR FALSE: one type of ODORANT will bind to more than one type of odorant receptor

true

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98

TRUE OR FALSE: some second order olfactory neurons project directly to the cerebral cortex w/o synapsing in the thalamus

true

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99

TRUE OR FALSE: the mechanism of release of paracrine agent by taste cells is very similar to the mechanism of neurotransmitter release from neurons

true

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100

TRUE OR FALSE: the primary odorant in bananas and the primary odorant in beave musk can activate some of the same receptors

true

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