THUR LA VOCAB

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157 Terms

1

ridge

sloping line of a high ground

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2

remorse

a feeling of sadness and being sorry for something you have done: ex: He felt no remorse for the murders he had committed.

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3

heath

an area of land that is not used for growing crops, where grass and other small plants grow, but where there are few trees or bushes ex: This capacity is less likely in heath forests on shallow soils.

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4

menace

threaten; seriously harm ex: I accused and menaced Mrs.Reed If someone or something menaces a person or thing, he, she, or it threatens seriously to harm it:

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5

subsequent

happening after something else: ex: Those explosions must have been subsequent to our departure because we didn't hear anything.

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6

emblem

a picture of an object that is used to represent a particular person, group, or idea: ex: A rose is the national emblem of England.

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7

vengeance

revenge; the punishing of someone for harming you or your friends or family, or the wish for such punishment to happen: ex: The story features a woman who is evicted from her home and is seeking vengeance.

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8

corrode

destroy by chemical action ex: If metal corrodes, it is slowly damaged by something such as rain or water:

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9

scorn

a very strong feeling of no respect for someone or something that you think is stupid or has no value: ex: She has nothing but scorn for the new generation of politicians.

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10

fain

willingly or happily: ex: I would fain forget what I had done.

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11

faculty

a natural ability to do something ex: Even at the age of 100, she still had all her faculties.

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12

frock

dress ex: a little girl in a pretty frock

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13

congeal

to change from a liquid or soft state to a thick or solid state: ex: The blood had congealed in thick black clots.

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14

relic

an object, tradition, or system from the past that continues to exist: ex: During the dig, the archaeological team found some relics from the Stone Age.

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15

russet

Reddish brown color

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16

heap

an untidy pile or mass of things ex: a heap of clothes/rubbish

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17

opaque

preventing light from travelling through, and therefore not transparent or translucent: Or something that is prevented from being seen or understood ex: I find her poetry a little too opaque. An opaque sky

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18

hoary

very old and familiar and therefore not interesting or funny: ex: He told a few hoary old jokes and nobody laughed.

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19

scold

to speak to someone angrily because you disapprove of their behaviour: ex: His mother scolded him for breaking her favourite vase.

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20

fond

having a strong preference or liking for ex: "I'm very fond of you, you know," he said.

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21

dread

to feel extremely worried or frightened about something that is going to happen or that might happen:/dislike ex: He's dreading the exam - he's sure he's going to fail.

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22

venturesome

used to describe a person who is willing to take risks, or an action or behaviour that involves risks: ex: He has become more venturesome this season with dress designs that incorporate a variety of ethnic influences.

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23

narrow

not wide,thin ex: The little village has very narrow streets.

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24

apprehensive

fearful or anxious, especially about the future ex: I'm very apprehensive about tomorrow's meeting.

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25

chronicle

a written record of historical events: ex: a chronicle of the French Revolution

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26

descend

to go or come down ex: The path descended steeply into the valley. Jane descended the stairs.

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27

slumber

sleep: ex: I fell into a gentle slumber. I didn't want to rouse you from your slumbers.

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28

cessation

ending or stopping: ex: The company has now stopped trading and has announced the cessation of its business.

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29

endeavor

to try to do something: ex: Engineers are endeavoring to locate the source of the problem.

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30

stiff

firm or hard: still ex: This hair spray has made my hair stiff. Mix the powder and water into a stiff paste.

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31

ecstatic

extremely happy ex: The new president was greeted by an ecstatic crowd.

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32

emulate

to copy something achieved by someone else and try to do it as well as they have: ex: They hope to emulate the success of other software companies.

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33

perilous

extremely dangerous: ex: He rows out through perilous and stormy seas.

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34

attire

clothes, especially of a particular or formal type: ex: I hardly think jeans are appropriate attire for a wedding.

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35

impair

to spoil something or make it weaker so that it is less effective: ex: A recurring knee injury may have impaired his chances of winning the tournament.

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36

phenomenon, phenomena

something that exists and can be seen, felt, tasted, etc., especially something unusual or interesting: ex: There's evidence to suggest that child abuse is not just a recent phenomenon. He is interested in real-life phenomena and issues, to which he applies insights from his research.

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37

multifaceted

having many facets or aspects ex: It's a multifaceted business, offering a range of services.

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38

Initiative

the ability to use your own judgment or actions to make decisions without asking another person's advice: ex: Candidates for the job must be capable of working on their own initiative. The plague induced a widespread elite consensus that a bold initiative was required to 'clean up' the city.

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39

consensus

agreement ex: The general consensus in the office is that he can't do his job. Could we reach a consensus on this matter? Let's take a vote.

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40

Compression

A force that pushes on or squeezes a material. ex: Tectonic forces caused compression in the earth's crust. Compression fractures of the spine are common in older people.

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41

innate

quality or ability is one that you were born with, not one you have learned: ex: Cyril's most impressive quality was his innate goodness.

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42

defy

refuse to obey; challenge ex: It is rare to see children openly defying their teachers. A forest fire raging in southern California is defying (= is not changed by) all attempts to control it.

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43

prevail

to win ex: discipline prevailed the room

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44

intellectual

relating to your ability to think and understand things, especially complicated ideas ex: Taking care of a baby at home all day is nice but it doesn't provide much intellectual stimulation.

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45

fatigue

extreme tiredness She was suffering from fatigue.

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46

fraud

the crime of getting money by deceiving people ex: He is fighting extradition to Hong Kong to face trial on fraud charges.

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47

flicker

to appear for a short time or to make a sudden movement: ex: A smile flickered across her face. He'd been in a coma for weeks, when all of a sudden he flickered an eyelid. I felt a cold draft and the candle started to flicker.

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48

draft

unpleasantly cold air blowing through a room ex: She felt a cold draft every time the door was opened. I felt a cold draft and the candle started to flicker.

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49

tense

nervous, worried, unable to relax: ex: She was very tense as she waited for the interview. There were some tense moments in the second half of the game.

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50

urge

a strong wish, especially one that is difficult or impossible to control: ex: The two of them seem unable to control their sexual urges. The urge to steal is very strong in some of these young men.

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51

unburden

to free yourself of something that is worrying you, by talking about it to someone: ex: He'll unburden himself to anyone who'll listen. She found there was no safe place to unburden her feelings or talk about intimate matters.

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52

yearning

a strong feeling of wishing for something, especially something that you cannot have or get easily: ex: I suppose it's because I live in a city that I have this yearning for open spaces. But the moment passed and was followed by an urge, a need, a passionate yearning to share the warmth with the one person left for him to love.

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53

renewed

having been resumed, re-established, or revived: ex: I came back for the new season with renewed determination The two renewed their friendship, not having seen one another for five years A change of scenery will recharge your batteries and renew your zest for life

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54

agonize

to spend a lot of time trying to make a decision: lingering contemplation ex: He agonized for several days before agreeing to move to Oklahoma. She agonized for days over whether she should take the job.

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55

agonizingly

in a way that causes extreme physical or mental pain or a extreme manner ex: My knee was agonizingly painful. Agonizingly hard decisions must be made. This is an agonizingly slow WiFi connection. Something sharp fell agonizingly onto her ankle.

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56

trudge

to walk slowly with a lot of effort, especially over a difficult surface or while carrying something heavy: ex: We trudged back up the hill. I'd had to trudge through the snow.

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57

lethargic

the feeling of having little energy or of being unable or unwilling to do anything: ex: I was feeling tired and lethargic. He was lethargic and his appetite was very poor.

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58

resignation

Leaving your job or a sad feeling of accepting something that you do not like because you cannot easily change it: ex: There have been calls for his resignation. They received the news with resignation. An experienced investor would accept these minor disappointments with resignation.

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59

will

what someone wants to happen: desires ex: Against their will (= although they did not want to), they were forced to hand over the money. After six months in the hospital, she lost the will to live (= the desire and determination to stay alive). He'll need an iron will to stick to that diet.

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60

treacherous/ly

1 : extremely dangerous or 2: not loyal (traitor) ex: 1: Snow and ice have left many roads treacherous, and drivers are warned to use caution. 2: I feel a bit treacherous to my own sex if I ever make general criticisms of women.

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61

impede

to elevate difficulty, delay, or interfere with something. ex: Although he's shy, it certainly hasn't impeded his career in any way. Shortages of medicine were impeding the effort to control diseases.

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62

stumble

to step awkwardly while walking or running and fall or begin to fall or a mistake ex: Running along the beach, she stumbled on a log and fell on the sand. He pulled on his clothes and stumbled into the kitchen. When the poet stumbled over a line in the middle of a poem, someone in the audience corrected him.

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63

momentary

lasting for a very short time: ex: a momentary hesitation This is not a momentary weakness on her part, but a systematic trope in the novel.

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64

systematic

according to an agreed set of methods or organized plan: ex: We've got to be more systematic in the way that we approach this task. We're hearing reports of the systematic rape and torture of prisoners. In his typically systematic way, he laid out the pros and cons in nine numbered paragraphs.

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65

trope

something such as an idea, phrase, or image that is often used in a particular artist's work, in a particular type of art, in the media, etc. : ex: Human-like robots are a classic trope of science fiction. The politician's speech was full of racist tropes.

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66

summit

the highest point of a mountain or a very important meeting between government leaders ex: Jacques Balmat reached the summit of Mont Blanc. We climbed to the summit of Mount Rainier. World leaders will meet next week for their annual economic summit.

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67

leaden

without energy or feeling; grey ex: The snow fell from a leaden sky They said goodbye under a leaden sky. His eyelids were leaden with sleep

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68

flooded

containing a large amount or number of something: ex: The market is flooded with cheap imports. Most of the families who have been flooded out will receive compensation (drive away with a flood) Sunlight flooded in at the windows

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69

emblazon

to print or decorate something in a very noticeable way: display ex: Her name was emblazoned across the front of the theatre. Cars emblazoned with the company logo. The rally was emblazoned on poster sites all over the town. Their success was emblazoned (celebrated).

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70

breaking point

the stage at which a person, company, system, etc. loses control over a situation and can no longer deal with their problems: ex: Her nerves were at breaking point. The situation reached breaking point when his son crashed the family car. We've been working 18 hours a day and we are all at the breaking point.

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71

intern

a student, or someone who has recently finished their studies, who works for a company or organization for a short time, sometimes without being paid, in order to get experience of a particular type of work: ex: After I graduate, I plan to work as an intern at an advertising agency.

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72

grunt (2)

  1. (of a person) to make a short, low sound instead of speaking, usually because of anger or pain:

  2. someone who does an unskilled job, especially a boring job: ex: He hauled himself over the wall, grunting with the effort. He said. "If you can't get a 'good' job, go be a construction grunt."

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73

inbred

produced by breeding between closely related plants, animals, or people: an inbred quality or characteristic is firmly established in a person: ex: The mating success of male butterflies is often lower if they are inbred. an inbred sense of right and wrong

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74

screeching

a long, loud, high noise that is unpleasant to hear: ex: I was woken by the sudden screeching of two cats fighting. We could not bear any more of the child's screeching. There was a crowd of screeching demonstrators outside the hotel.

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75

raucous

loud and unpleasant to listen to ex: I heard the raucous call of the crows. Raucous laughter came from the next room. The party was becoming rather raucous.

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76

boundary

an edge or limit of something: ex: The Ural mountains mark the boundary between Europe and Asia. Electronic publishing is blurring the boundaries between dictionaries and encyclopedias. Try to show love while respecting each other's boundaries. We set firm boundaries, and if the children cross them there are consequences.

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77

bribe

to try to make someone do something for you by giving him or her money, presents, or something else that he or she wants: ex: He bribed immigration officials and entered the country illegally. They bribed the waiter to find them a better table.

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78

scrubs

loose clothes worn by doctors and nurses in a hospital: ex: A woman in nursing scrubs came to greet us. There's a photo of him in his surgical scrubs on the desk. They have to put on freshly laundered scrubs every day.

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79

interchange (2)

to exchange something, especially ideas or information, with another person or group; or a junction at which smaller roads meet a main road. ex: An international medical conference was established for the interchange of new ideas and approaches. The freeway sign that directed drivers to the interchange was blackened and partially melted, its lettering burned away.

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80

gaiety

happiness and excitement: ex: I felt there was an air of forced gaiety about her manner. She loved the gaiety of the holiday season. It's an archive of my own immersion in gaiety. Our emotions were intermingled with sadness and gaiety.

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81

immersion

being completely involved in something: ex: Total immersion in a video game is almost like living another life. We have all learned complex grammar rules simply by immersion in a language since birth.

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82

intermingle

to become mixed together: ex: The flavors intermingle to produce a very unusual taste. Fact is intermingled with fiction throughout the book. Our emotions were intermingled with sadness and gaiety.

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83

appalling

shocking and very bad: ex: The drive home was appalling. Prisoners were kept in the most appalling conditions.

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84

elaborate (2)

to add more information to or explain something that you have said: or containing a lot of connected parts or many complicated details: ex: The congresswoman said she was resigning, but refused to elaborate on her reasons for doing so. They had created elaborate computer programs to run the system.

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85

deem

to consider or judge something in a particular way: ex: The play was reviewed by officials and deemed legal. I deemed him a coward because he never spoke at all. She is currently deemed to be the best British athlete. The story was deemed too controversial and so they spiked it.

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86

controversial

causing disagreement or discussion: ex: The book was very controversial. They are also very controversially talking about taxing Social Security benefits more than they are now. The practice of genetic testing has become a very controversial issue.

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87

formidable

strong and powerful, and therefore difficult to deal with if opposed to you: ex: She is a formidable figure who commands a great deal of respect There were formidable obstacles to reaching an early settlement of the dispute. The task was formidable but has been undertaken successfully.

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88

foe

an enemy or opponent ex: Foes of the plan were there to voice their concerns. All good protagonists require a formidable foe, and the foe of modern portfolio theory is behavioral finance. As the chapters roll by, battle after battle is won, foe after foe vanquished.

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89

vanquish

to defeat an enemy or opponent ex: Napoleon was vanquished at the battle of Waterloo in 1815. The vanquished army surrendered their weapons. Smallpox, a once deadly disease, has now been vanquished.

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90

imposing

having an appearance that looks important or causes admiration: ex: He was an imposing figure on stage. She was an imposing attorney with a dignified bearing.

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91

bearing (2)

  1. connection to or influence on a result:

  2. the particular way you find it natural to hold your body or the way you appear to other people: ex: The fact that he was ordered to stand trial has no bearing on whether he'll be found guilty. She was an imposing attorney with a dignified bearing.

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92

dignified

controlled, serious, and calm, and therefore deserving respect: ex: He has maintained a dignified silence about the rumors. The defeated candidate gave a dignified speech in which he congratulated his rival.

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93

rival

a person, group, etc. competing with others for the same thing or in the same area: ex: He beat his closest rival by 20 points. No computer can rival a human brain in complexity. The beauty of the country is only rivaled by (= is as great in degree as) the violence of its politics.

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94

dearth

an amount of something that is too small: a lack: scanty ex: The region is suffering from a dearth of medical specialists. Human Resources managers complain that there is a dearth of talented candidates. Considering the dearth of these basic services, what is it about the plight of the city's museum that resonates so deeply?

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95

plight

an unpleasant condition, esp. a serious, sad, or difficult one: ex: My problems aren't much compared with the plight of the storm victims. Few of us can be unmoved by the plight of the refugees.

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96

resonate

to continue to have a powerful effect or value; produce, increase, or fill with sound ex: His voice resonated in the empty church. The noise of the bell resonated through the building. The significance of those great stories resonates down the centuries. If an experience or memory resonates, it makes you feel an emotional connection: Her experiences resonate powerfully with me, living, as I do, in a similar family situation.

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97

contrive

to arrange for something to happen or be done by being smart or deceiving others: ex: He somehow contrived to get tickets for the concert. He somehow contrived to get tickets for the concert. Do you think you could contrive something for hanging my clothes on until the new closet is ready?

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98

absurd

stupid and unreasonable, or silly in a humorous way: ex: It is absurd for the council to cut taxes without proposing another way to raise money. It's an absurd situation - neither of them will talk to the other. Think about that claim for one minute, and you'll see how absurd it is.

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99

sincerity

honesty ex: The priest was a man of deep sincerity. There's a sincerity in the way he sings, it's stunning. People saw his sincerity and took his message to heart. It was a vivid story, told with sincerity and emotion.

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100

likewise

in the same way: ex: Just water these plants twice a week, and likewise the ones in the bedroom. "I don't have time to spend hours preparing one dish!" "Likewise (= it's the same for me)."

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