Biostatistics Lab

studied byStudied by 7 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Demography

1 / 124

Tags and Description

Moving Quiz

125 Terms

1

Demography

The statistical study of human populations, including the size, structure, and distribution of different populations and changes in them.

New cards
2

Population

The number or body of inhabitants in a place belonging to a specific social, cultural, socioeconomic, ethnic, or racial subgroup.

New cards
3

Demographic Analysis

A technique used to understand the age, sex, and racial composition of a population and how it has changed over time through birth, death, and migration.

New cards
4

Population Studies

The scientific study of human populations, including broad population dynamics, fertility and family dynamics, health, aging, mortality, and human capital and labor markets.

New cards
5

Count

The absolute number of a population or any demographic event occurring in a specified area and time period.

New cards
6

Rate

The frequency of demographic events in a population during a specified time period divided by the population "at risk" of the event occurring.

New cards
7

Ratio

The relation of one population subgroup to the total population or to another subgroup.

New cards
8

Proportion

The relation of a population subgroup to the entire population.

New cards
9

Constant

An unchanging, arbitrary number used to express rates, ratios, or proportions in a more understandable fashion.

New cards
10

Cohort Measure

A statistic that measures events occurring to a group of people sharing a common demographic experience over time.

New cards
11

Period Measure

A statistic that measures events occurring to all or part of a population during one period of time.

New cards
12

Population Composition

The description of a population according to characteristics such as age, sex, race, or other factors.

New cards
13

Vital Statistics

Information obtained from vital events such as births, deaths, marriages, and changes in civil status, recorded in a civil register.

New cards
14

Demographic Indicators

Indicators used to measure changes in health or nutritional status indirectly, indicating direction and speed of change and allowing for comparisons between different areas and groups of people.

New cards
15

Mortality Indicators

Indicators used to measure death rates and signal a broad range of health problems, including crude mortality rate, age-specific mortality rate, infant mortality rate, maternal mortality rate, and under-5 mortality rate.

New cards
16

Morbidity Indicators

Indicators used to measure the frequency of illness, disease, injury, and disability in a population, including incidence and prevalence.1. Disability Rates:The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) defines disability as an umbrella term for impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions.

New cards
17

Healthcare Delivery Indicators

Indicators that reflect the equity of distribution of health resources in different parts of the country and provision of health care, such as doctor-population ratio, doctor-bed ratio, and population-bed ratio.

New cards
18

Utilization Rates

Actual coverage expressed as the proportion of people in need of a service who actually receive it in a given period, usually a year.

New cards
19

Social and Mental Health Indicators

Indirect measures like indicators of social and mental pathology are relied upon to assess social and mental health, such as acts of violence, crime, suicide, homicide, road accidents, juvenile delinquency, alcohol and drug abuse, smoking, and consumption of tranquillizers.

New cards
20

Environmental Indicators

Indicators that reflect the quality of physical and biological environment in which diseases occur and in which people live.

New cards
21

Socioeconomic Indicators

Indicators that do not directly measure health but are important in the interpretation of healthcare indicators, such as rate of population increase, per capita GNP, level of unemployment, dependency ratio, literacy rates, family size, housing density, and per capita calorie availability.

New cards
22

Health Policy Indicators

Indicators that reflect the allocation of adequate resources to the health sector and political commitment to health, such as proportion of GNP spent on health services, proportion of GNP spent on health-related activities, and proportion of total health resources devoted to primary health care.

New cards
23

Quality of Life Indicators

Indicators that measure physical, mental, and social well-being as perceived by individuals or groups, including happiness, satisfaction, and gratification in various aspects of life.

New cards
24

Overview of Demographic Changes

A discussion on significant and unprecedented demographic shifts, shaping societies and posing policy challenges, particularly in relation to the global increase in the general population and the aging population in wealthier countries.

New cards
25

Drivers of Demographic Change

Various factors that drive demographic changes, including fertility rates, childhood survival rates, age at death, and migration patterns.

New cards
26

Demographic Transition

A shift from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates as societies develop, significantly impacting population structures and presenting challenges and opportunities.

New cards
27

Population Pyramid Shapes

Different population pyramid shapes representing high fertility, transitioning, and aging populations, showcasing examples from Nigeria, Bangladesh, and Japan.

New cards
28

Demographic Dividend

A period of low dependency ratio that presents an opportunity for economic growth, depending on effective policies to utilize the working-age population.

New cards
29

Implications for Global Population Distribution

The predicted shift in global population distribution, with Africa and Asia becoming major population hubs, and the understanding that the demographic transition is a temporary phenomenon that will eventually stabilize the global population structure.1. Population Census:A comprehensive enumeration of the inhabitants of a country or specific area, gathering demographic details such as age, sex, marital status, education level, economic activity, migration patterns, and more. Conducted every ten years.

New cards
30

Vital Registration

The mandatory recording of vital events such as births, deaths, marriages, and divorces by every citizen. Contributes to demographic data.

New cards
31

Population Register

A continuous and permanent register containing essential information about each citizen, including names, addresses, age, and sex. Acts as a vital source of demographic data for administrative and legal purposes.

New cards
32

Sample Surveys

Collecting information from a representative subset (sample) of the population rather than the entire populace. Allows for focused data collection on specific aspects of the population.1. Implementation:The process of carrying out a survey, including selecting a representative sample and collecting data using questionnaires.

New cards
33

Surveys

Research method that complements census data by providing more frequent or specialized information, helps verify census accuracy, and allows for efficient and cost-effective gathering of demographic insights.

New cards
34

Population Growth

The increase in the number of people living in the world, with the majority residing in Asia and Africa. Factors such as fertility rates and aging populations affect the rate of population growth.

New cards
35

Demographics

The study of population characteristics, including fertility rates, life expectancy, and age structure. Demographics change over time and vary across different regions.

New cards
36

Population Growth and Development

The relationship between population growth and economic development, where development can lead to smaller families and slower population growth. This has implications for poverty reduction, gender equality, and environmental sustainability.

New cards
37

Development and Smaller Families

Economic development can lead to smaller families through factors such as increased education, urbanization, and access to family planning. Family planning programs play a role in promoting smaller families.

New cards
38

Epidemiology

The field of medical science that investigates the distribution and determinants of diseases within populations. John Snow's investigation during the 1854 cholera outbreak in London is a notable example of the power of data analysis and mapping in understanding and combating epidemics.1. Miasma:A mysterious and harmful vapor believed to come from swamps or the ground, traditionally attributed to causing diseases.

New cards
39

John Snow

Epidemiologist who linked contaminated water from a specific pumping station to a cholera outbreak, challenging prevailing beliefs and revolutionizing disease comprehension.

New cards
40

Ontology

The branch of philosophy that deals with how reality is experienced.

New cards
41

Epistemology

The branch of philosophy that deals with how knowledge is acquired.

New cards
42

Methodology

The methods used for scientific study.

New cards
43

Smallpox eradication

The successful elimination of smallpox through mass vaccination programs and a thorough understanding of herd immunity.

New cards
44

Risk factors

Factors that increase the likelihood of developing a disease, such as smoking for lung cancer.

New cards
45

Disease surveillance

Tracking and analyzing data on disease occurrence and patterns within populations.

New cards
46

Diagnostic tests

Tests used to diagnose diseases, evaluated by epidemiologists for accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity.

New cards
47

Trend analysis

Studying changes in disease occurrence over time or across diverse populations to identify patterns and potential causes.

New cards
48

Epidemiology

The study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states and events in specified populations, with a focus on prevention and control.

New cards
49

Natural history of diseases

The progression of a disease from its initial development to its resolution or chronic state.

New cards
50

Subclinical diseases

Diseases that do not present with noticeable signs or symptoms.

New cards
51

Sporadic

Occasional, isolated cases of a disease that occur infrequently and irregularly in a particular population or area.

New cards
52

Endemic

The constant presence of a disease or infectious agent within a specific population, geographic area, or community.

New cards
53

Hyperendemic

The consistent presence of a disease at a higher than expected level within a specific population over a prolonged period.

New cards
54

Epidemic

A sudden and widespread increase in the number of cases of a disease in a particular population or geographic area, exceeding what is normally expected.

New cards
55

Outbreak

A localized increase in the occurrence of a disease in a particular geographic area, community, or population, larger than what is normally expected.

New cards
56

Pandemic

A global outbreak of a disease, spreading over multiple countries or continents and affecting a large number of people.

New cards
57

Sensitivity

The proportion of true positive results in a diagnostic test, expressed as a percentage.

New cards
58

Specificity

The proportion of true negative results in a diagnostic test, expressed as a percentage.

New cards
59

PPV (Positive Predictive Value)

The proportion of positive test results that are true positives, expressed as a percentage.

New cards
60

NPV (Negative Predictive Value)

The proportion of negative test results that are true negatives, expressed as a percentage.

New cards
61

Vital statistics

The branch of biometry that deals with data and the law of human mortality, morbidity, and demography.

New cards
62

De facto census

Counts people based on where they are during the census, even if they're not usually there.

New cards
63

De jure census

Counts people based on where they officially belong, even if they're not there during the census.

New cards
64

Modern census

A thorough survey that collects detailed information about a country's people, homes, and more.

New cards
65

Sample registration survey

A method of collecting population data through a sample of the population.

New cards
66

Registration of live events

Recording of births, deaths, and other significant events in a population.

New cards
67

Institutional records

Records from institutions such as hospitals or schools that provide data on population characteristics.

New cards
68

Demographic analysis

The study of the components of variation and change in demographic variables and the relationship between them.1. Population Studies:The study of relationships between demographic variables and other variables such as social and economic variables.

New cards
69

Tools of Demography

Count, rate, ratio, proportion, constant, cohort, and period measure.

New cards
70

Health Indicators

Valid, reliable, sensitive, specific, feasible, and relevant measures used to assess health.

New cards
71

Measures of Morbidity

Epidemiological measures used to understand disease distribution and outbreak causes related to food.

New cards
72

Study Types

Ecological study, case series, cross-sectional study, case-control study, cohort study, and interventional study.

New cards
73

Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review

Methods to summarize and interpret multiple studies on a particular topic.

New cards
74

Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs)

Gold standard for testing the efficacy of interventions.

New cards
75

Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM)

Integrating clinical expertise, patient values, and the best available evidence to make informed decisions about patient care.

New cards
76

PICO Method

A systematic approach to formulating research questions.

New cards
77

Disease Frequency Measures

Incidence and prevalence.

New cards
78

Measures of Association

Relative risk (RR) and odds ratio (OR).

New cards
79

Hypothesis Testing

Statistical tests used to evaluate the significance of observed associations between variables.

New cards
80

Historical Significance and Public Health Impact

Notable contributions and examples of epidemiology's role in public health.

New cards
81

Challenges and Advancements

Impact of technology, ethical concerns, and the evolving nature of epidemiology.

New cards
82

Preventive Medicine

The science and art of preventing diseases, prolonging life, and promoting health.

New cards
83

Public Health

Undertakings for the prevention of diseases and the promotion of health that are primarily a community responsibility.

New cards
84

Objectives of Preventive Medicine

Promoting optimum health and having a physically and mentally sound body.1. Prevent departure from health:Being free from any forms of illness.

New cards
85

Prevent disabling illness after the onset of disease in man

Fixing any forms of disability through rehabilitation.

New cards
86

Primary level prevention

Designed to promote general optimum health or specific protection against disease agents or establishment of barriers against agents in the environment.

New cards
87

Secondary level prevention

Accomplished by early diagnosis, prompt and adequate treatment to prevent the spread of the disease and further complications.

New cards
88

Tertiary level prevention

The level where the defect and disability have been fixed, accomplished by rehabilitation.

New cards
89

Local Infection

Invading microorganisms are confined to one area (e.g., wound).

New cards
90

Focal Infection

Microorganisms are confined to one area, which may serve as a source for further dissemination of toxic materials to other parts of the body (e.g., diarrhea).

New cards
91

Systemic or General Infection

General invasion affecting the entire body (e.g., typhoid fever and cancer).

New cards
92

Bacteremia

Presence of bacteria in the bloodstream but no active multiplication (e.g., Influenza and boils).

New cards
93

Septicemia

Invasion of bacteria in the bloodstream with active multiplication of microorganisms (e.g., typhoid fever caused by contaminated foods and drinks).

New cards
94

Pyemia

Presence of pus-forming bacteria in the bloodstream, characterized by the development of abscesses in various organs (e.g., carcinoma).

New cards
95

Sapremia

A form of blood poisoning caused by toxins produced by certain microorganisms (e.g., canned food poisoning).

New cards
96

Toxemia

Condition of illness due to the presence of toxins in the bloodstream, caused by the ingestion of foods contaminated with toxins (e.g., toxemia of pregnancy due to ingestion of poisonous substances).

New cards
97

Endemic disease

A small number of people are affected among the population of a community (e.g., meningococcal meningitis, common colds).

New cards
98

Epidemic disease

When an endemic disease flares up affecting a large number of people and spreads from person to person within a certain community (e.g., diarrhea, measles, chicken pox).

New cards
99

Pandemic

When an epidemic becomes widespread, and the disease is prevalent throughout the entire country (e.g., blood-borne infections, HIV infection).

New cards
100

Etiologic agents

Rickettsia (microorganisms between bacteria and viruses, respond to antimicrobial agents), Viruses (obligate intracellular parasites).

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7884 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(53)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard35 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard39 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard46 terms
studied byStudied by 21 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard227 terms
studied byStudied by 81 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard50 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard113 terms
studied byStudied by 66 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard27 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard21 terms
studied byStudied by 1189 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(4)