Exam 2 - study guide

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What are we made of?

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Biology

Cells

132 Terms

1

What are we made of?

all organisms are made of cells

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Eukaryotic cells

Protists, fungi, animal, plants

DNA in nucleus that is bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope

membrane bound organelles

cytoplasm in the region between plasma membrane and nucleus
(generally larger)

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Prokaryotic cells

Bacteria and Archaea

No nucleus

DNA in unbound region called nucleoid

no membrane bound organelles

cytoplasm bound by the plasma membrane

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all cells

plasma membrane

semifluid substance called cytosol

chromosomes (carry genes)

ribosomes

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Plasma membrane

selective barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen, nutrients, and waste to service the volume of every cell

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<p>What is this (typical rod-shaped bacterium)</p>

What is this (typical rod-shaped bacterium)

bacterial chromosome

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Bacterial chromosome

to carry the genetic information for that species of bacteria

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<p>what is this (a typical rod-shaped bacterium)</p>

what is this (a typical rod-shaped bacterium)

fimbriae

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Fimbriae

enable the bacteria to bind to specific receptor structures and thereby to colonise specific surfaces

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<p>what is this (a typical rod-shaped bacterium)</p>

what is this (a typical rod-shaped bacterium)

Nucleoid

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nucleoid

regulates the growth, reproduction, and function of the cell

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<p>what is this (a typical rod-shaped bacterium)</p>

what is this (a typical rod-shaped bacterium)

Ribosome

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ribosome

intercellular structure made of both RNA and protein, and it is the site of protein synthesis in the cell

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<p>what is this (a typical rod-shaped bacterium)</p>

what is this (a typical rod-shaped bacterium)

Plasma membrane

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plasma membrane

provides protection for a cell

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<p>what is this (a typical rod-shaped bacterium)</p>

what is this (a typical rod-shaped bacterium)

cell wall

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cell wall

surrounds the plasma membrane of plant cells and provides tensile strength and protection against mechanical and osmotic stress

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<p>what is this (a typical rod-shaped bacterium)</p>

what is this (a typical rod-shaped bacterium)

capsule

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capsule

protecting bacteria from toxic compounds and desiccation and allowing them to adhere to surfaces and to escape the immune system of the host

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<p>what is this (a typical rod-shaped bacterium)</p>

what is this (a typical rod-shaped bacterium)

Flagella

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flagella

microscopic hair-like structures involved in the locomotion of a cell

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Smooth ER

lacks ribosomes

synthesizes lipids

metabolizes carbohydrates

detoxifies drugs and poisons

stores calcium ions

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Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) biosynthetic factory

ER membrane is continuous with the nuclear envelope

there are two distinct regions of ER

Smooth and Rough

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Rough ER

surface is studded with ribosomes

Has bound ribosomes, which secrete glycoproteins (proteins covalently bonded to carbohydrates)

distributes transport vesicles, proteins surrounded by membranes

is a membrane factor for the cell

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Endomembrane system

Nuclear envelope

endoplasmic reticulum

golgi apparatus

lysosomes

vacuoles

plasma membrane

(components are either continuous or connected through transfer by vesicles)

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nuclear envelope (endomembrane system)

separates the contents of the nucleus from the cytoplasm and provides the structural framework of the nucleus

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endoplasmic reticulum (endomembrane system)

Accounts for more than half of the total membrane in many eukaryotic cells

continuous with nuclear envelope

two distinct regions: smooth ER and rough ER

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<p>golgi apparatus (endomembrane system)</p>

golgi apparatus (endomembrane system)

consists of flattened membranous sacs called Cisternae

Functions:

  1. modifies products of the ER

  2. manufactures certain macromolecules

  3. sorts and packages material into transport vesicles

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lysosomes (endomembrane system)

a membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that can digest macromolecules

the enzymes can: hydrolyze proteins, fats, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids

work best the acidic environment inside the lysosome

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vacuoles (endomembrane system)

large vesicles derived from the endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus

certain vacuoles in plants and fungi carry out enzymatic hydrolysis like lysosomes

helps in storage of salts, minerals, pigments and proteins within the cell

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plasma membrane (endomembrane system)

provides protection

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phagocytosis

one cell engulfing another cell forming food vacuole

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contractile vacuoles

pump excess water out of cell

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central vacuoles

hold organic compounds and water

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ribosome

bound to ER, free in cytosol

site of protein synthesis in cell

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<p>Ribosome </p>

Ribosome

Top: large subunit

bottom: small subunit

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Mitochondria

sites of cellular respiration

(metabolic process that uses oxygen to generate ATP)

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Chloroplasts

sites of photosynthesis

(contain chlorophyll, enzymes, other photosynthesis molecules)

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Mitochondria chloroplasts (and bacteria)

enveloped by a double membrane

contain free ribosomes and circular DNA molecules

grow and reproduce somewhat independently in cells

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<p>1 Mitochondrion </p>

1 Mitochondrion

Outer membrane

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<p>2 Mitochondrion</p>

2 Mitochondrion

intermembrane space

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<p>3 Mitochondrion</p>

3 Mitochondrion

Free ribosomes in the mitochondrial matrix

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<p>4 mitochondrion</p>

4 mitochondrion

DNA

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<p>5 Mitochondrion </p>

5 Mitochondrion

inner membrane
(creates intermembrane space and mitochondrial matrix)

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<p>6 Mitochondrion </p>

6 Mitochondrion

Cristae

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<p>7 Mitochondrion </p>

7 Mitochondrion

Matrix

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<ol><li><p>Chloroplast </p></li></ol>
  1. Chloroplast

Ribosomes

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<p>2 Chloroplast </p>

2 Chloroplast

Stoma

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<p>3 Chloroplast </p>

3 Chloroplast

Inner and outer membranes

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<p>4 Chloroplast</p>

4 Chloroplast

Granum

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<p>5 Chloroplast </p>

5 Chloroplast

DNA

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<p>6 Chloroplast </p>

6 Chloroplast

Intermembrane space

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<p>7 Chloroplast</p>

7 Chloroplast

Thylakoid

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thylakoid

membranous sacs, stacked to form granum

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stoma

internal fluid

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Cytoskeleton

network of fibers extending throughout cytoplasm

organizes cells structures and activities, anchoring many organelles (helps to support cell and maintain its shape)

interacts with motor proteins to provide mobility (vesicles can “walk” along tracks provided by it

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3 types of fibers make up cytoskeleton

Microtubules - thickest

microfilaments - (actin filaments) thinnest

intermediate filaments - middle

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<p>Microtubules </p>

Microtubules

hollow rods constructed from globular protein dimers called tubulin

Functions

  1. shape and support cell

  2. cell mobility (cilia or flagella)

  3. guide movements of organelles

  4. separate chromosomes during cell division

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microtubules (tubulin polymers)

hollow tubes; wall consists of 13 columns of tubulin molecules

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<p>Microfilaments </p>

Microfilaments

thin solid rods, built from molecules of globular actin subunits (bundles make up intestinal cells)

structural role: bear tension, resisting pulling forces within cell

Function:

  1. maintain cell shape

  2. changes in cell shape

  3. muscle contraction

  4. cytoplasmic streaming in plants

  5. cell mobility

  6. division of animal cells

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microfilaments (actin filaments)

two intertwined strands of actin each a polymer of actin subunits

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Intermediate filaments

fibrous proteins supercoiled into thicker cables

Functions:

  1. maintains cell shape

  2. anchors nucleus and other organelles

  3. formation of nuclear lamina

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<p>Intermediate filaments (keratin fibers)</p>

Intermediate filaments (keratin fibers)

Fibrous proteins supercoiled into thicker cables

(only animal cells have these)

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Peroxisomes

specialized metabolic compartments bounded by a single membrane

produce hydrogen peroxide and convert it to water

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motor protein

protein that can move with the help from ATP

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centrosome

microtubules grow out from

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cell wall

extracellular structure - made of cellulose fibers embedded in other polysaccharides and protein

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cell wall layers

Primary cell wall: relatively thin and flexible

middle lamella: thin layer between primary walls of adjacent cells

secondary cell wall: (in some cells) added between plasma membrane and primary cell wall

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cell junctions

neighboring cells in animal or plants - adhere, interact, and communicate through direct physical contact

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intercellular junctions

plasmodesmata

tight junctions

desmosomes

gap junctions

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plasmodesmata

channels that perforate plant cell walls

water and small solutes (sometimes proteins and RNA) pass from cell to cell

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Junctions in animal cells

tight junctions

desmosomes

gap junctions

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tight junctions

prevent fluid from moving across a layer of cell

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desmosomes

mediate direct cell-cell contacts and provide anchorage sites for intermediate filaments important for the maintenance of tissue architecture

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Gap junctions

aggregates of intercellular channels that permit direct cell–cell transfer of ions and small molecules

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Extracellular matrix (ECM)

animal cells version of cell wall

made up of glycoproteins - collagen, proteoglycans, fibronectin

ECM proteins bind to integrins

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integrins

receptor proteins in plasma membrane

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<p>1 extracellular matrix (ECM)</p>

1 extracellular matrix (ECM)

collagen

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<p>2 Extracellular matrix (ECM)</p>

2 Extracellular matrix (ECM)

Fibronectin

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<p>3 Extracellular matrix (ECM)</p>

3 Extracellular matrix (ECM)

plasma membrane

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<p>4 extracellular matrix (ECM)</p>

4 extracellular matrix (ECM)

A proteoglycan complex

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<p>5 extracellular matrix (ECM)</p>

5 extracellular matrix (ECM)

integrins

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<p>extracellular matrix (ECM)</p>

extracellular matrix (ECM)

cytoplasm

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<p>extracellular matrix (ECM)</p>

extracellular matrix (ECM)

micro-filaments

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Plasma membrane

selective barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen, nutrients, and waste to service the volume of every cell

(general structure is double layer of phospholipids)

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<p>1 plasma membrane </p>

1 plasma membrane

phospholipid

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<p>2 plasma membrane </p>

2 plasma membrane

proteins

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<p>3 plasma membrane </p>

3 plasma membrane

Carbohydrate side chains

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<p>4 plasma membrane </p>

4 plasma membrane

hydrophilic region

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<p>5 plasma membrane </p>

5 plasma membrane

hydrophobic region

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<p>animal cell </p>

animal cell

flagellum

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<p>2 animal cell </p>

2 animal cell

centrosome

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<p>3 animal cell (Cytoskeleton )</p>

3 animal cell (Cytoskeleton )

  1. microfilaments

  2. intermediate filaments

  3. microtubules

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<p>4 animal cell </p>

4 animal cell

microvilli

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microvilli

digestion and absorption of intestinal contents by increasing surface area of cell

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<p>5 animal cell </p>

5 animal cell

peroxisome

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<p>6 animal cell </p>

6 animal cell

mitochondrion

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<p>7 animal cell </p>

7 animal cell

lysosome

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<p>8 animal cell </p>

8 animal cell

golgi apparatus

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<p>9 animal cell </p>

9 animal cell

ribosomes

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