Hesi anatomy review part 2

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What minerals are stored in bone?

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Biology

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1

What minerals are stored in bone?

calcium and phosphorus

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2

what are the two types of bone tissue?

compact (dense) and spongy (cancellous)

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3

Spongy bone contains a

latticework of plates of bone with spaces in between (trabeculae)

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4

Cells that form bone tissue

osteoblasts

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5

Osteocytes

osteoblasts that become fixed in the dense bone matrix and stop dividing but continue to maintain bone tissue

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6

Osteoclasts

break down the bone tissue

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7

Epiphysis

on a long bone; the site of bone growth in length

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8

Diaphysis

the shaft of a long bone

covered by compact bone

has a hollow center called the medullary cavity

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9

Axial skeleton

skull, vertebral column, 12 pairs of ribs, and sternum

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10

Appendicular skeleton

shoulder and hip girdles, and extremities

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11

how many bones in the skull

28

14 facial bones

14 cranial vault bones

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12

How many sections of the vertebral column and what are they?

5

7 cervical vertebrae

12 thoracic vertebrae

5 lumbar vertebrae

(5 fused) sacrum

(4 fused) coccyx

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13

Contractile units of muscle

sarcomere

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14

myofibril

long, rod-shaped organelles that nearly fill the sarcoplasm (cytoplasm of muscle cell)

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15

what myofilaments are within contractile proteins?

actin and myosin

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16

actin

thin protein

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17

myosin

thick protein

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18

muscle contraction occurs through the

sliding filament model

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19

what is the sliding filament model?

myosin binds to actin and pulls it toward the center of the sarcomere

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20

agonist

muscle that performs a given movement (prime mover)

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21

antagonist

muscle that produces the opposite movement

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22

synergists

muscles that work in cooperation with the agonist

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23

flexors

reduce the angle at a joint

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24

extensors

increase the angle

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25

abductors

draw a limb away from the midline

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26

adductors

return the limb back toward the body

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27

central nervous system

the brain and spinal cord

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28

peripheral nervous system

all other nerves in the body, namely cranial nerves and peripheral nerves

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29

peripheral nervous system is divided into the

somatic nervous system

autonomic nervous system

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30

somatic nervous system

skin, muscles, bones, joints

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31

autonomic nervous system

digestion, heart rate, blood pressure, urination

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32

what are the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system?

parasympathetic and sympathetic

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33

parasympathetic nervous system

rest and digest

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34

sympathetic nervous system

fight or flight

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35

all actions of the nervous system depend on the transmission of

nerve impulses over neurons

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36

functional unit of the nervous system

neuron

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37

what are the main parts of a neuron

the cell body, axon and dendrites

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38

dendrites transmit the impulse

toward the cell body

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39

axons transmit the impulse

away from the cell body

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40

afferent neurons transmit impulses

toward the CNS

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41

examples of effector organs

muscles, glands, digestive organs

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42

four major parts of the brain

cerebrum

cerebellum

diencephalon

brainstem

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43

function of cerebrum

sensory interpretation, movement, thinking and personality

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44

function of the cerebellum

responsible for muscle coordination

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45

function of the diencephalon

thalamus- routes incoming sensory info to appropriate part of the cerebrum

hypothalamus- monitors autonomic nervous system and endocrine system

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46

function of brainstem

respiration and heart rate

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47

which layer of the skin undergoes mitosis?

stratum (germinativum) basale

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48

sensory impulses enter the ____ spinal cord

posterior

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49

motor impulses leave through the ____ spinal cord

anterior

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50

where do the nervous and endocrine systems meet?

the hypothalamus and pituitary gland

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51

what governs the pituitary gland?

the hypothalamus

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52

two major groups of hormones are?

steroid and non-steroid hormones

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53

what do steroid hormones do?

enter the target cell and have a direct effect on the DNA of the nucleus

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54

what do non steroid hormones do?

remain at the cell surface and act through a second messenger, usually a substance called adenosine monophosphate (AMP).

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55

how do most hormones affect cell activity?

by altering the rate of protein synthesis

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56

hypothalamus attaches to the pituitary gland via the

infundibulum

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57

somatotropin hormone also known as ______ does what?

growth hormone

stimulates growth in all organs

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58

adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

stimulates secretion of adrenal cortex hormones

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59

thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

stimulates secretion of thyroid hormones

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60

follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

stimulates secretion of ovarian follicles and secretion of estrogens in females; stimulates sperm production in males

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61

luteinizing hormone (LH)

triggers ovulation in females; stimulates secretion of testosterone in males

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62

oxytocin

stimulates uterine contractions during labor; stimulates milk ejection from the mammary glands; also known as the bonding hormone

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63

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

stimulates retention of water by the kidneys

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64

thyroid gland

secretes thyroid hormones which regulate metabolism, and calcitonin which decreases blood calcium levels

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65

parathyroid glands

secrete parathyroid hormone, which increases blood calcium levels

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66

adrenal glands

cortex secretes cortisol

medulla secretes adrenaline (intensifies sympathetic response)

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67

pancreas

secretes insulin, which decreases blood glucose levels, and glucagon, which increases blood glucose levels

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68

gonads

ovaries secrete estrogens, which develop and maintain female sexual characteristics and progesterone, which maintains pregnancy; testes secrete testosterone, which develops and maintains male sexual characteristics

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69

what are the hormones released from the posterior lobe of the pituitary

  1. oxytocin

  2. antidiuretic hormone

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70

what are the tropic hormones (released from anterior lobe of pituitary)?

  1. adrenocorticotropic hormone

  2. thyroid-stimulating hormone

  3. follicle-stimulating hormone

  4. luteinizing hormone

  5. growth hormone

  6. prolactin

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71

what are the tropic hormones?

  1. adrenocorticotropic hormone

  2. thyroid-stimulating hormone

  3. follicle-stimulating hormone

  4. luteinizing hormone

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72

name the granular leukocytes

neutrophils

basophils

eosinophils

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73

what do agranular leukocytes do

phagocytosis and production of antibodies

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74

what are the granular leukocytes

neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils

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75

what do granular leukocytes do?

antibody production

cellular immune responses

phagocytosis

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76

deoxygenated blood returning from the body is received by the

right atrium

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77

the tricuspid valve is between the

right atrium and the right ventricle

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78

bicuspid valve also known as the ____ is between the

mitral valve; left atrium and left ventricle

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79

pulmonary valve

between the right ventricle and pulmonary trunk

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80

aortic semilunar valve

between the left ventricle and the aorta

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81

what node initiates heart beat?

sinoatrial node

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82

cardiac cycle

period from the end of one ventricular contraction to the end of the next ventricular contraction

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83

systole

contraction phase

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84

diastole

relaxation phase

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85

what is the structure responsible for the site of exchange of water, nutrients, and waste products between the blood and surrounding tissues?

capillaries

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86

these drain blood from the capillaries and send it to veins

venules

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87

walls of arteries are ________ and ________ and carry blood under _____ pressure__

thick, elastic, high pressure

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88

respiratory control center?

medulla oblongata

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89

external respiration

the exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the blood through the alveoli

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90

internal respiration

the exchange of gases between the blood and body cells

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91

inhalation requires contraction of the ________

diaphragm

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92

some carbon dioxide is carried on hemoglobin cells but most is converted to bicarbonate ion in the blood via the enzyme _______

carbonic anhydrase

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93

what is a regulator of blood PH?

carbon dioxide

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94

layers of the digestive tract from innermost to outer

mucous membrane

submucous layer

muscular layer

serous layer

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95

accessory organs of the digestive system?

liver, pancreas and gallbladder

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96

mastication

chewing

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97

name the three pairs of salivary glands

  1. parotid glands

  2. sublingual glands

  3. submandibular glands

<ol><li><p>parotid glands</p></li><li><p>sublingual glands</p></li><li><p>submandibular glands</p></li></ol>
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98

What enzyme in saliva starts digestion of complex carbohydrates?

amylase

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99

what is secreted in the stomach that unwinds proteins?

hydrochloric acid

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100

what enzyme digests proteins in the stomach?

pepsin

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