Conservation Biology Final Exam

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106 Terms

1

conservation

sustainable use of natural resources

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preservation

keeping hands off of the environment

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restoration

return degraded environment to historic conditions

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4

darwin and wallace

proposed evolution by natural selection in the 1860s

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5

preservation ethic

grew out of romantic-transcendental thoughts; advocated for hands-off, pristine wilderness

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utilitarian conservation ethic

advocated for using natural resources for the benefit of people who live here now

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7

aldo leopold

wrote the land ethic, which talked about how people are members and citizens of the land which demands respect for it

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8

rachel carson

observed the loss of bird species and linked the decline in birds to increased pesticides; wrote silent spring in 1962

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9

rosalie edge

focused on protecting all bird species and founded hawk mountain sanctuary

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10

william hornaday

realized bison population was plummeting and tried to “preserve” bison by shooting them in order to study them later

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11

types of science

basic and applied

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12

basic science

“pure” science expands knowledge regardless of known applications for knowledge

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13

applied science

aims to use science to solve a known, real-world problem

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14

biodiversity hotspot

significant reservoir of biodiversity and is threatened with destruction

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15

latitudinal gradients

general increase in species richness towards tropical latitudes

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cradle of diversity

more diversity begins in the tropics

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museum of diversity

more diversity because of fewer extinction

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18

hypotheses for latitudinal gradients

stability and energy diversity hypothesis

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19

stability hypothesis

species continue to develop in areas that have remained stable for longer

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energy diversity hypothesis

warmer areas have higher rates of speciation or lower rates of extinction

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what do both hypotheses for latitudinal gradients suggest?

suggest that the greatest diversity is in the south

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22

conservation biology

the study of the protection and preservation of the environment

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23

biological diversity

variety of life

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24

types of biological diversity

organismal, genetic, and ecological

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organismal diversity

the full taxonomic hierarchy and its components, from individuals, populations, subspecies and species, genera, families, phyla, kingdoms, and domains

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genetic diversity

components of the genetic coding that structures organisms (nucleotides, genes, chromosomes) and variation in the genetic makeup between individuals within and between populations

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ecological diversity

scales of ecological differences from populations, through habitats to ecosystems, ecoregions, provinces, and on up to biomes and biogeographic realms

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species richness

number of species in a community

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species eveness

comparison of relative abundance of species in a community

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diversity index

estimates of species diversity; not every index shows the exact same patterns

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endemic species

species the live in a limited geographic area

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phylogenetic diversity

calculation of the branch length sums in a phylogenetic tree

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biomes

geographical region with communities adapted to local climate (temperature and precipitation)

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34

ecoregion

large unit of land or water containing a geographically distinct assemblage of species, natural communities, and environmental conditions

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35

ecosystem services

the conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems and the species that make them up, sustain and fulfill human life

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36

millennium ecosystem assessment

largest assessment of the health of Earth’s ecosystems; popularized the term ecosystem services

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what are the ecosystem services?

provisioning services, regulating services, supporting services, cultural services

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provisioning services

products obtained from ecosystems → food, water, raw material, medicinal resources

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regulating services

benefits obtained from the regulation of ecosystem processes → climate, natural hazard regulations, erosion

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supporting services

services necessary for the production of all other ecosystem services → lifecycle maintenance, biodiversity protection

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cultural services

nonmaterial benefits obtained from ecosystem → recreation, tourism, aesthetic values, inspiration

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42

biogeochemistry

studying the chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes near the surface of the Earth

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43

solution to tragedy of the commmons

international ban, taxes and fees, cap and trade, engage more local governments

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44

kunming-montreal global biodiversity framework

23 action-oriented global targets for urgent action over the decade to 2030

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45

ecosystem functioning

the collective life activity of all plants, animals, and microbes and the effects of these activities (feeding, growing, moving, excreting, etc) have on the physical and chemicals conditions of their environment

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46

habitat loss

major threat to biodiversity

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types of habitat loss

habitat destruction, habitat degradation, habitat fragmentation

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48

habitat destruction

natural habitats are no longer able to support the original species, resulting in the displacement or destruction of the biodiversity

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habitat destruction examples

fossil fuel removal, deforestation, dredging, bottom trawling, urbanization, wetland fill, mowing

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50

habitat degradation

habitat remains intact, but it is degraded such that it is incapable of ecosystem functioning → species extinction or migration

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habitat degradation example

pollution, invasive species, agriculture, urban sprawl, logging, mining, overfishing, altered fire regime

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habitat fragmentation

the spatial separation of habitats that previously were connected

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habitat fragmentation examples

land conversion to agriculture, urbanization, dams, water diversions, pollution, invasive species, deforestation

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anthromes

anthropogenic biomes

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corridor

a habitat that connects isolated patches of habitat that are otherwise inaccessible

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patch

habitat separated from the surrounding matrix

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structural connectivity

connectivity from a land or seascape perspective

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functional connectivity

connectivity from a species perspective

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concerns from connectivty

invasive species movement, disease, predation, edge effects

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value of corridors in conservation

ethics, economics, social concerns, politics

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61

theory of island biogeography

describes how island size and isolation determine population colonization success; large islands sustain larger populations than small ones and experience a lower extinction risk

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endangered species act

provides a program for the conservation of threatened and endangered plants and animals and the habitats in which they are found

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threatened species

a species likely to become endangered in the foreseeable future in a substantial part of its home range

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endangered species

a species currently in danger of extinction

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how is the ESA implemented?

terrestrial species are protected by the US fish and wildlife service and marine species are protected by NOAA’s National Marine Fisheries Service

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keystone species

species that have a disproportionately large impact on an environment compared to their biomass

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trophic cascade

how species, like a predator, interacts with the whole food web, including the plant and herbivores

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chronic wasting disease

neurological illness found at feedlots outside of Jackson Hole where elk have been since 1912

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69

what animals are likely to go locally extinct?

historic loss of very large organisms, while small organisms have fewer species threatened

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70

defaunation

global, local, or functional extinction of animal population/species in which large species are lost first

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tragedy of the commons

refers to a situation in which individuals with access to a public resource act in their own interest and, in doing so, ultimately deplete the resource

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72

greenhouse gases

gases that trap heat in the atmosphere

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73

CO2

carbon dioxide

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74

CH4

methane, which is released by cows, a by-product of natural resources, and produced by flares at landfills

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N2O

nitrous oxide, which is a by-product of the production of chemicals for fertilizers

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SF6

fluorinated gases like sulfur hexafluoride

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ocean acidification

human activity raises CO2 levels in the air, which leads to more dissolved CO2, which leads to decreased pH, which leads to the ocean being more acidic

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78

extreme weather

  • small shifts can make a difference

    • Ex: more extreme rainfall because more heat = more evaporation = more moisture clouds forming = more rain

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79

greenland

melting over land and icebergs calving off

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80

antarctica

ice shelves form with subglacial melting and calving off the shelf

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81

ice shelf

ice attached to a coastline, fed by glaciers, extending over the ocean

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82

ice shelf purpose

act as breaks to slow down the movement of glaciers coming from the main ice sheet

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83

iceberg

a large piece of floating ice from a glacier

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84

sea ice

frozen saltwater that formed on and floats on the ocean surface (not from land glaciers)

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85

sea ice purpose

regulates heat, moisture, and salinity in polar oceans, as well as provides habitat for organisms

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86

first-year sea ice

has not survived a summer melt

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87

multi-year sea ice

thicker with more ice growing on the underside

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88

biomonitoring

using biological organisms in the environment to infer the habitat quality

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89

biomonitoring example

birds in the presence of DDT

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90

clean water act and bioassessment

includes restoring and maintaining the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation’s waters

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91

healthy stream meaning

when we say healthy, we usually mean the ecosystem is similar to a natural ecosystem with a balanced, integrated, adaptive community of organisms with varied composition, diversity, and functional groups present

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92

substrate

bottom type

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93

smothering

silt and rocks covering larger rocks

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94

silting

clay and silt covering the entire stream, causing high turbidity

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95

sinuosity of channels

curviness of channels

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96

oxbow

U-shaped bend

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97

oxbow lake

lake formed when an oxbow is cut off from the main stream

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98

oxbow scar

dried oxbow lake

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99

riffles and runs

areas where current is fast/turbulent, and the surface may be broken

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100

discharge

the volume of water moving through a stream

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