Biolofy Exam Semester 1

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prokaryote

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Biology

9th

131 Terms

1

prokaryote

unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles

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2

eukaryote

organism whose cells contain a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles

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3

control

In an experiment, the standard that is used for comparison

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4

control trial

measures the performance of one set of task components in the absence of another set of task components to isolate the effects of the included components on performance.

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5

slope

rise/ run (y2-y1/x2-x1)

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6

suspension

a heterogeneous mixture that separates into layers over time

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7

solution

a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances

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8

product

a substance that forms in a chemical reaction

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9

reactant

a substance that takes part in and undergoes change during a reaction.

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10

solvent

the substance in which the solute dissolves

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11

solute

the substance that is dissolved

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12

exothermic

releases energy, heat

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13

endothermic

absorbs energy, heat

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14

catabolic

breaking down (cats destroy)

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15

anabolic

building up, creating

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16

atomic number

number of protons

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17

atomic mass

number of protons and neutrons

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18

protons

positive charge

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19

neutrons

neutral charge

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20

electrons

negative charge

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21

ions

positively and negatively charged atoms

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22

ionic bonds

transfer of electrons

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23

polar covalent bond

unequal sharing of electrons

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24

nonpolar covalent bond

equal sharing of electrons

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25

hydrogen bonds

weak attraction between a hydrogen atom and another atom

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26

monomers

small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers

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27

structure of proteins

amino acids

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28

function of proteins

growth and repair

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29

examples of proteins

enzymes and antibodies

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30

structure of carbohydrates

carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio

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31

function of carbohydrates

provide energy

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32

examples of carbohydrates

sugars, starches, chitin, glycogen, cellulose, glucose

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33

function of starch

energy storage in plants

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34

function of glycogen

energy storage in animals

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35

function of cellulose

provides support to plant cell walls

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36

function of chitin

provides structure to fungal cell walls, exoskeleton

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37

function of glucose

quick energy

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38

structure of lipids

long fatty acids attached together to make long chains

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39

function of lipids

long term energy storage

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40

examples of lipids

fats, oils, waxes, steroids

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41

hydrophobic

water hating

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42

hydrophilic

water loving

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43

are lipids hydrophilic?

no

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44

structure of nucleic acids

nucleotides

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45

function of nucleic acids

store genetic information

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46

examples of nucleic acids

DNA, RNA, ATP

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47

cohesion

an attraction between molecules of the same substance

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48

adhesion

attraction between molecules of different substances

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49

surface tension

the force that acts on the surface of a liquid and that tends to minimize the area of the surface

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50

high heat of vaporization

many hydrogen bonds must be broken for water to evaporate

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51

high specific heat

the ability of water to resist changes in temperature

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52

is frozen water less dense than liquid water?

yes

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53

is water a good solvent?

yes

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54

what are found in all cells?

ribosomes, cytoplasm, plasma membrane, DNA

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55

structure of plasma membrane

phospholipid bilayer

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56

function of plasma membrane

to regulate what goes into and out of the cell

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57

function of nucleus

contains DNA

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58

function of ribosomes

make proteins

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59

function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum

protein synthesis

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60

function of smooth endoplasmic reticulum

lipid synthesis

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61

function of the golgi apparatus

modify, sorts and packages proteins and other materials from the ER for storage in the cell or secretion outside the cell

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62

function of the central vacuole

stores water

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63

function of the mitochondria

cellular respiration and atp synthesis

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64

function of chloroplasts

site of photosynthesis

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65

structure of cell wall

made of cellulose

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66

function of the cell wall

protects and supports the cell

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67

function of nucleoid

contains DNA

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68

function of flagella

movement

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69

function of pili

attachment (like suction cups)

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70

function of capsule

protection

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71

structure of the cytoskeleton

microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments

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72

function of the cytoskeleton

helps a cell keep its shape

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73

endomembrane system

regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions in the cell

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74

endosymbiotic theory

theory that eukaryotic cells formed from a symbiosis among several different prokaryotic organisms

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75

function of cholesterol

maintains membrane fluidity

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76

function of a phospholipid

make up the cell membrane

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77

integral proteins

penetrate the hydrophobic interior of the lipid bilayer

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78

function of integral proteins

transport proteins, enzymes, or receptors

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79

peripheral proteins

bound to the surface of the membrane

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80

function of peripheral proteins

enzymes, motor proteins for shape change during cell division and muscle contraction, cell-to-cell connections

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81

glycoproteins

proteins that have carbohydrates covalently bonded to them

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82

function of glycoproteins

cell recognition

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83

glycolipids

carbohydrates covalently bonded to lipids

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84

function of glycolipids

cell recognition

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85

Why do phospholipids form a bilayer?

Hydrophilic heads attracted by water so are on the outsideHydrophobic tails repel water so point inwards

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86

what does it mean that the phospholipid bilayer is flexible?

molecules can easily slide past and change position in the membrane

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87

what does it mean that the phospholipid bilayer is fluid?

with the help of cholesterol, the membrane can move and even stretch

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88

fluid mosaic model

model that describes the arrangement and movement of the molecules that make up a cell membrane

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89

passive transport

the movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell from a high to low concentration

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90

simple diffusion

movement of a solute from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration

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91

facilitated diffusion

process of diffusion in which molecules pass across the membrane through cell membrane channels

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92

osmosis

diffusion of water

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93

hypertonic

having a higher concentration of solute than another solution.

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94

hypotonic

having a lower concentration of solute than another solution

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95

isotonic

having the same solute concentration as another solution.

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96

semipermeable membrane

a membrane that allows some molecules to pass through but does not allow other molecules to pass through.

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97

active transport

the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy from a low to high concentration

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98

structure of enzymes

made of proteins

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99

function of enzymes

increase the rate at which a reaction occurs by lowering the activation energy and provides a place for reactions to happen

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100

substrate

reactant of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction

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