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Hunter gatherers

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163 Terms

1

Hunter gatherers

Earliest humans that live in small groups and foraged for food and hunted animals for meat

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2

Hierarchy

An organization in which certain people/groups are ranked higher or lower

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3

Civilization

A human society based in cities and possesses specialists

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4

Specialists

Skilled workers who advance technology and government and economic exchange

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5

Diffusion

The spread of a society and ideas

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6

Agriculture

The farming of crops off of land

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7

Religion

The worship of superhuman powers like gods and the creation of rituals to secure divine fate

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8

Polytheism

Worshipping multiple gods

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9

Artisans

Turn raw goods into finished goods

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10

Raw goods

Wood or metal

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11

Finished goods

Farming tools, furniture, or weapons

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12

Trade

Exchanging goods produced in one city in exchange for goods produced in another city

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13

Economy

The harvesting of raw materials, making of finished goods, and the exchange of goods

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14

Warriors

Protect the city

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15

Infantry

Soldiers that fought on foot

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16

Cavalry

soldiers who fought on horseback

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17

Government

An institute to keep a large group of people in order

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18

Governance

The government's work

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19

Laws

Rules enforced by the state

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20

King

The main ruler of a empire/city/state (catch all term)

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21

Classes

Different sub groups within human societies

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22

Slaves

People denied of equality and forced to work for others

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23

Interstate anarchy

The absence of any world government to govern a state

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24

Small states

City state

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25

Medium state

Ex: japan and germany

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26

Large states

Ex: china

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27

culture

What makes people unique

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28

People groups

People bound together by a common culture

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29

Empire

A state that rules and exploits many conquered states

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30

Tributary system

Conquered states retained substantial independence as long as they paid tribute to the empire

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31

Capitol city

An urban center that houses the offices of the government

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32

Provinces

Territorial divisions within the empire

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33

Governors

Administered provinces and were appointed by the monarch

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34

Direct taxes

Systematic payments from the citizens based on their income, property, or per person

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35

Indirect taxes

From people taking particular actions that bolsters the empires funds

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36

Trade duty

Indirect tax Paid by merchants whenever they brought finished goods to the empire

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37

Coinage

Round disks made of metals which are used as payments

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38

Standing armies

Permanent full time warriors

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39

King of kings

Persian ruler

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40

Zoroastrianism

A dualistic religion honoring one god of ;ought- Ahura Mazda- and opposed the god of darkness- Angra Manyu

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41

Magi

Zoroastrian priests

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42

Abraham

Distant ancestor of Israelites

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43

Covenant

Sacred deal with god created by Abraham

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44

Moses

A prophet

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45

Judaism

First monotheistic religion

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46

Torah

Holy book of Judaism

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47

Jerusalem

the holiest city of the Jews; capital of the ancient kingdoms of Israel and then June

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48

Diaspora

The spread of Jews

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49

Rabbis

Priests of Jews

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50

Olive oil and wine

Staple goods of Mediterranean

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51

Barbarians

Greek term for foreign people

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52

City state

Government dominated by a single city

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53

Philosophy

Love of wisdom

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54

Plato

A philosopher who dealt with understanding the universe Created the idea of ideal types

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55

Aristotle

Student of Plato Dealt with categorizing the physical realities of the world

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56

Monarchs

Government with one ruler

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57

Aristocracy

Government ruled by a few people

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58

Democracy

Ruled by many

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59

Tyranny

Selfish monarchy

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60

Oligarchy

Selfish aristocracy

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61

Patricians

Upper class of Rome

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62

Plebeians

Lower class of Rome

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63

Republic

Mixed government types or create an ideal government

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64

Dictator

A powerful but temporary monarchical figures that rule rome until an emergency had passed

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65

The senate

A group of important Roman's who voted on the motions being made

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66

Civil wars

Wars fought between competing factions within a state

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67

Emperor

The highest possible ranks ruler could hold

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68

Romanization

The process by which the Latin language and Roman culture became dominant in the western provinces of the Roman Empire. Romans did not seek to Romanize them, but the subjugated people pursued it.

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69

Religious persecution

the use of discrimination or violence by a state against a religious minority, for their nonconformity

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70

Aqueducts

Vast stone structures that carried water

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71

Christianity

A monotheistic religion based on the New Testament founded by Jesus

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72

Paul of tarsus

spread Christianity to the Roman world

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73

Council of Nicaea

A meeting of bishops

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74

Bishops

The most senior of the Christian priests

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75

Patriarchs

Five people who administered the Christian church in the Roman Empire

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76

Pope

Head of the church

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77

Constantinople

Created by Constantine near the Persian empire

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78

Vedic age

A historical period in India named after the vedas

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79

Vedas

Only historical text that tell us about the Vedic age

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80

Vedic India had two systems...

Varna- class Jati- caste

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81

Varna had what five classes

Brahmin- priests Kshatriya- warriors Vaishya- traders and artisans Shudra- peasants and laborers Untouchables- social outcasts

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82

Caste system

Created in India that has different class levels for people

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83

Atman

Spirit/soul in all living creatures

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84

Karma

Atman got it by performing well in their given life role

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85

Upanishads

Epics which criticized the Vedic world

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86

Buddhism

Helps people to reach Nirvana/enlightenment

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87

Four noble truths

Life is filled with suffering Suffering comes from desire One must get rid of desire to end suffering The 8 fold path is how you get rid of suffering

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88

Eight fold path

Encourages a ;ifest;e that lends itself to meditation for enlightenment

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89

Two branches of Buddhism

Theravada and Mahayana

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90

Theravada Buddhism

Placed little emphasis o gods but was very conservative

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91

Mahayana Buddhism

Progressive side of Buddhism that encourage the reliance on monks

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92

Bodhisattvas

Buddhas-to-be who stayed in the world after enlightenment to help others on the path to salvation

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93

Stupas

Buddhist shrines

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94

Hinduism

A direct successor of the Vedic religion Had three prominent gods; Vishnu, shiva, and shakti

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95

Vishnu

The preserver and savior figure

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96

Shiva

The destroyer who creates and destroys

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97

Shakti

wife of Shiva and warrior goddess of death

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98

Dharma (Hinduism)

Obedience to the religious rules

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99

Kama

Seeing social, physical, and sexual pleasure as good

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100

Artha

The pursuit of money and prosperity

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