Animal Nutrition

studied byStudied by 500 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

What food item was required to be supplied on all British Navy ships?

1 / 175

Tags and Description

Final Exam Review

176 Terms

1

What food item was required to be supplied on all British Navy ships?

lime juice

New cards
2

The daily supply of feed to an animal refers to what?

ration

New cards
3

T/F Alexis St Martin suffered a gunshot wound to the abdomen and was then studied by Dr. James Lind.

False

New cards
4

Antoine Lavoisier developed what technology?

Calorimeter

New cards
5

T/F Socrates proposed there were four humors found in food that could alter a person’s psychology.

False

New cards
6

T/F During the European Enlightenment they believed food (particularly from animal sources) contained spirits.

True

New cards
7

About how many different nutrients are discovered to be required by the body?

40

New cards
8

List the 6 classes of nutrients.

Water, Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, Minerals, and Vitamins

New cards
9

T/F Lavoisier thought the only nutrient was protein.

False

New cards
10

William Beaumont is considered the “Father of Gastric Physiology” and discovered what?

Digestion takes place by digestive juices

New cards
11

T/F Feed is the major cost in raising livestock.

True

New cards
12

A chemical element that is required for life refers to what?

nutrient

New cards
13

Dr. James Lind found a treatment for what disease?

Scurvy

New cards
14

The mixture of feedstuffs used to supply nutrients refers to what?

Diet

New cards
15

Q2, To calculate protein, we multiply nitrogen by?

6.25

New cards
16

Q2, Crude protein doesn’t actually measure protein. It measures?

Nitrogen

New cards
17

Q2, T/F Proximate analysis is sometimes called the Kjeldahl analysis.

False

New cards
18

Q2, Which of the following would be the remaining products left after ADF?

Lignin, Cellulose

New cards
19

Q2, Which of the following would be the remaining products left after NDF?

Lignin, Cellulose, Hemicellulose

New cards
20

Q2, T/F Dry matter can be conducted using an oven, refrigerator, or microwave.

False

New cards
21

Q2, Correctly name the identified proximate analysis fraction with the corresponding nutrient. Select the best choice for each.

Dry matter - Water

Ether Extract - Fat

Crude Protein - Protein

NFE - Soluble Carbohydrates

CF - Fibrous Carbohydrates

Ash - Minerals

New cards
22

Q2, T/F ADL will determine the lignin content in a forage.

True

New cards
23

Q2, T/F Lignin is completely digested by ruminants.

False

New cards
24

Q2, What type of company did Kjeldahl work for and develop his N analysis for?

Beer

New cards
25

Q3, T/F An example of baleage would be grass hay wet wrapped (baled and wrapped at higher moisture) that is allowed to ferment before feeding.

True

New cards
26

Q3, To be categorized as a protein concentrate, a feedstuff must contain more than what percentage protein?

20%

New cards
27

Q3, T/F Quality of hay is inversely proportional to age

True

New cards
28

Q3, T/F Forage losses from storage increase as percent moisture decrease

False

New cards
29

Q3, Describe the differences between pasture and range.

Pastures are often east of the Mississippi and are continuously maintained and worked on to be improved. Pastures often contain higher quality grass.

Ranges are west of the Mississippi and are untouched land and boundaries are usually natural land blocks. Ranges are usually bigger.

New cards
30

Q3, Put the following in order from highest protein to lowest protein concentration.

Highest

Alfalfa

Orchard grass

Bermuda grass

Lowest

New cards
31

Q3, Match the given feedstuffs to the appropriate classification.

A feed with the composition of 89%DM, 40%CP, 9%CF is a? Protein Concentrate

A feed with the composition of 89%DM, 9%CP, 5%EE, 13%CF is a? Energy Concentrate

Alfalfa hay is a? Roughage

MGA is a? Non-nutritive additive

Corn oil is a? Energy concentrate

Feather Meal is a? Protein Concentrate

Limestone is a? Mineral supplement

Fermentation products are a? Protein Concentrate

New cards
32

Q3, T/F Carbonaceous roughages have high protein levels.

False

New cards
33

Q3, T/F Fermentation will occur and become stable within 28 days of ensiling a forage.

True

New cards
34

Q3, To be categorized as a roughage, a feedstuff must have more than what percentage crude fiber?

18%

New cards
35

Q4, Horses, lack a ________, the organ responsible for secreting bile.

Gall Bladder

New cards
36

Q4, The three sections of the small intestine in order, include?

Duodenum, Jejunum, Illeum

New cards
37

Q4, T/F The ventriculus is the “true stomach” of the avian GIT.

False

New cards
38

Q4, T/F Another name for an intestinal cell is an enterocyte.

True

New cards
39

Q4, Place in order from least efficient to most efficient at digesting fiber.

Least efficient

Non-Ruminants

Hind-gut Fermenters

Ruminants

Most efficient

New cards
40

Q4, T/F Pigs begin enzymatic digestion in the mouth.

True

New cards
41

Q4, T/F Horses have salivary amylase.

False

New cards
42

Put the animal into the correct digestive anatomy category. Select the BEST option. More than one animal species can be placed under a category.

Ruminant - Cow,Deer

Non-Ruminant - Pig,Dog

Hind-gut fermenter - Horse,Rabbit

Fore-gut fermenter - Llama,Camel

New cards
43

Q4, T/F A ruminant is always a foregut fermenter, but a foregut fermenter is not always a ruminant.

True

New cards
44

Q4, Cloaca literally means _______

Common Sewer

New cards
45

Q4, T/F Grit facilitates mechanical digestion in the bird.

True

New cards
46

Q4, T/F Caecotrophs are the hard, fibrous fecal material excreted by rabbits.

False

New cards
47

Q5, The zymogen for Trypsin is______ and it is activated by the enzyme ------

Trypsinogen, Enterokinase

New cards
48

Q5, Cholecystokinin is also known as ________

pancreozymin

New cards
49

_______ is the secretion that assists with fat digestion.

Bile

New cards
50

Q5, Match the appropriate term and statement

Example of cavital glycosidase - Pancreatic amylase

Example of an intestinal peptidase - Dipeptidase

Example of an intestinal glycosidase - Mannase

Example of cavital peptidase - Gastric pepsin

New cards
51

Q5 - T/F Pancreatic lipase preferentially hydrolyzes fatty acids in the 1 and 2 position of triglycerides.

False

New cards
52

Q5, ________ secrete pepsinogen and ------- secrete HCL

Chief Cells, Parietal Cells

New cards
53

Q5, Match the appropriate term term and statement.

This enzyme is low and not inducible in pigs from birth to 3 weeks of age. - Amylase

This Enzyme is induced for ruminants that are 3-8 weeks of age - Lactase

Action of this hormone is to inhibit the other GIT hormones - Somatostatin

Action of this hormone is to secrete water and bicabonate - Secretin

Action of this hormone is to empty gall bladder, inhibit HCL, stimulate synthesis of pancreatic enzymes, regulate glucose, produced satiety, and delay gastric emptying - CCK

Action of this hormone is to stimulate secretion of HCL and Pepsin - Gastrin

Action of this hormone is to inhibit HCL and gastric mobility - GIP

New cards
54

Q5, List the four roles of GIT secretions and an example of each.

Things that lubricate and protect the GIT - saliva, mucus

Things that alter pH - HCL

Things that do the digestion - enzymes

Things that assist with digestion - Bile

New cards
55

Q5, Choose the option that causes the most stimulation of gastrin.

Dietary proteins

New cards
56

Q5, _______ are substances that acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific reaction.

Enzymes

New cards
57

Q6, Correctly place each carbohydrate in the correct category.

Carbohydrates that can be digested by mammals.

-Maltose

-Lactose

-Sucrose

-Amylopectin

Carbohydrates only digested by microbes

-Cellobiose

-Cellulose

New cards
58

Q6, T/F Galactose is not found free in nature.

True

New cards
59

Q6, During glycolysis glucose is converted to two ______ molecules.

pyruvate

New cards
60

Q6, T/F Some monosaccharides can be converted to glucose in the intestinal wall.

True

New cards
61

Q6, Categorize the correct definition with the term.

Glucogenesis - creation of new glucose from non-CHO sources

Glycogenolysis - Glycogen to glucose

Glycogenesis - Glucose to Glycogen

New cards
62

Q6, A monosaccharide has _______ sugar unit

One

New cards
63

Correctly categorize the sugar based on number of carbons.

Hexose - Glucose, Fructose, Mannose, Galactose

Pentose - Xylose, Ribose, Arabinose

New cards
64

Q6, The Embden-Myerhoff pathway is also known as _______

glycolysis

New cards
65

Q6, In ewes, Ketosis, is also known as __________

pregnancy disease

New cards
66

Q6, T/F Glucose can be catabolized to release energy for new tissue synthesis.

True

New cards
67

Q6, T/F With type II diabetes, insulin is not produced at all.

False

New cards
68

Q6, T/F The alpha glycosidic bond is formed when the OH on the carbon is above the glucose ring.

False

New cards
69

Q6, Glycogen can be found mainly in the ________ and -------

liver, muscle

New cards
70

Q6, A polysaccharide has more than _______ sugar units

ten

New cards
71

Q6, What are the three important steps for energy production?

Glycolysis, TCA cycle, and Electron Transport Chain

New cards
72

Q6, T/F Maximum ATP production must follow anaerobic pathways.

False

New cards
73

Q7, T/F Paylean, a beta-adrenergic agonist, will inhibit triglyceride catabolism.

False

New cards
74

Q7, T/F Protected choline can be supplemented to dairy cattle to prevent fatty liver.

True

New cards
75

Q7, Dietary lipid are coated with ------, as they enter the duodenum. This process allows for -------, which is the process of breaking down fat globules. This in turn ------ surface area. The enzyme ----- will then breakdown triglycerides into free fatty acids and a monoglyceride. Before fats can be transported across the intestinal cell they form -------. Once in the cell fats are reassembled into triglycerides and then coated with a protein. This complex is then called a -------. Once formed they will exit the cell via exocytosis and will enter the ------ system, which will eventually drain into the ------system.

Bile, emulsification, increases, lipase, micelles, chylomicron, lymphatic, circulatory

New cards
76

Q7, Select the fatty acids that would be liquid at room temperature.

Linoleic, Erucic, Oleic, Linolenic, Arachidonic

New cards
77

Q7, Describe the characteristics of these fats that would explain why they would be liquid.

These fats are not completely saturated and have at least one carbon-carbon double bond which would result in a lower freezing point than saturated fats and therefore would be liquids at room temperature and saturated fats would be solids at room temperature.

New cards
78

Q7, T/F Cholesterol content in the body is only driven by dietary consumption.

False

New cards
79

Q7, T/F All plant source fats are liquid at room temperature.

False

New cards
80

Q7, T/F Cholesterol can be biosynthesized from acetyl-CoA.

True

New cards
81

Q7, T/F Mammals will absorb long chain FA lipids via the circulatory system.

False

New cards
82

Q7, T/F Hydrogen bonds attach the fatty acids to the glycerol backbone.

False

New cards
83

Q7, T/F The chylomicron is formed in the lumen of the intestine before being absorbed across the brush border.

False

New cards
84

Q7, Categorize each fatty acid as either SFA, UFA, or PUFA. (Choose the most correct)

SFA

-Myristic

-Palmitic

- Stearic

UFA

-Oleic

PUFA

- Linoleic

-Linolenic

-Arachidonic

New cards
85

Q7, T/F Chylomicrons have the lowest ratio of lipids to protein of the lipoproteins we discussed in class.

False

New cards
86

Q7, T/F The process of digesting fats requires the assistance of bile salts.

True

New cards
87

Q7, T/F HDL is considered the “good” cholesterol.

True

New cards
88

Q8, Hibernating animals rely on what source of water to survive?

Metabolic

New cards
89

Q8, T/F If a limiting amino acid is used up, protein synthesis that uses that amino acid can still continue.

False

New cards
90

Q8, T/F Methionine is a TSAA, limiting, and essential.

True

New cards
91

Q8, T/F Phenylalanine can be converted to methionine.

False

New cards
92

Q8, T/F Animal proteins have higher biological value than plant proteins.

True

New cards
93

Q8, T/F Protein degradation is often stimulated by glucocorticoids.

True

New cards
94

Q8, T/F Net energy from a protein is higher than fat due to the energy required to dispose of the by-products from N metabolism.

False

New cards
95

Q8, T/F The body can convert Methionine to Cystine.

True

New cards
96

Q8, Urea has 45% N, this makes it ----- percent crude protein?

281.25

New cards
97

Q8, You can survive how many more times longer without food than water?

10

New cards
98

Q8, T/F The maillard reaction can bind an amino acid to a fat.

False

New cards
99

Q8, RUP stands for ------ and is the equivalent to ------- (UIP, or ------ protein

Ruminally undegraded protein, undegraded intake protein, bypass

New cards
100

Q8, Match the form of excess N to species

Fish - NH3

Birds - Uric acid

Terrestrial vertebrates - Urea

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 85 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(10)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 97 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 24 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard53 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard26 terms
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard21 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard36 terms
studied byStudied by 93 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard110 terms
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard89 terms
studied byStudied by 155 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard25 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard29 terms
studied byStudied by 182 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)