Environmental Bio: Test 1 Material

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1

a, d, & e

What are the characteristics of sustainable development? select all that apply

a. Sustainable development uses local and abundant resources whenever possible.

b. Sustainable development necessitates drastic reduction in the consumption of resources.

c. Sustainable development requires finding new resources to replace old ones.

d. Sustainable development does not compromise the needs of future generations.

e. Sustainable development meets the needs of the current society.

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to protect the planet while also ensuring health and prosperity for all people

What is the overarching purpose of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals?

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a, b, & c

What are some possible geologic markers of the proposed epoch, the Anthropocene? select all that apply

a. changes in natural drainage patterns due to urbanization and infrastructure such as buildings, highways, and dams

b. increased concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in soil and water due to the use of fertilizers

c. worldwide distribution of radioactive elements from nuclear fallout

d. increases in the number of earthquakes along tectonic plates due to widespread construction and global climate change

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a & e

The Rapa Nui civilization is famous for constructing massive moai, or human-shaped statues averaging 13 feet tall, on the island now known as Easter Island. The history and fate of the civilization has long been a subject of discussion for archaeologists.

The people first arrived on the island around 1,200 years ago on wooden canoes and subsisted on fishing, hunting, and agriculture on the island. Although the soil on the island was not naturally nutrient-rich, the settlers found that it was suitable for staples such as sweet potatoes, and the waters surrounding the island had plentiful fish that the people were skilled at catching. At its peak, it is believed that the Rapa Nui society on the island reached a population of 10,000 to 20,000 people spread throughout many chiefdoms.

At the time of the Rapa Nui arrival, the 63-square mile volcanic island was covered in palm trees. To carry the massive blocks of rock needed for the moai, to construct canoes for fishing, to build fires, and to clear land for agriculture, the people cut down the native palm trees.

The deforestation increased soil erosion, which wiped out the habitat for the island’s native bird and animal species. As the supply of trees dwindled on the island, the people lost their means to fish, hunt, build homes, and construct fires. Scientists have long believed that the loss of the trees on the island ultimately led to the downfall of the once‑thriving society.

Select the practices that contributed to the Rapa Nui society's lack of sustainability.

a. significantly increased their population after settling on the island

b. planted crops that were not native to the island

c. adjusted dietary habits to suit local ecosystem

d. devoted labor and nonrenewable volcanic rock to construct moai

e. exhausted energy sources provided by the local ecosystem

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a, b, & c

What are the reasons that human ecosystems create environmental problems that are difficult to solve?

a. Human ecosystems have largely unchecked population growth.

b. Human ecosystems produce large amounts of waste.

c. Human ecosystems have a heavy reliance on nonrenewable resources.

d. Human ecosystems rely on biomimicry and nature as a model.

e. Human ecosystems change more slowly than other ecosystems.

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education

Read the description of the tragedy of the commons and identify the type of solution described.

Every year, many people from all over the world visit Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming. Some of the park’s main attractions include herds of bison that roam freely throughout the park, as well as many natural hot springs and geysers. Visitors frequently try to approach or feed the park’s wildlife and sometimes attempt to leave the marked trails and boardwalks to enter the hot springs. These actions negatively affect the natural environment of the park and detract from the experience of other visitors. One of the ways that the park has attempted to solve this problem is to have park rangers give presentations to visitors on a regular basis explaining the dangers of approaching and feeding wildlife as well as the reasons for remaining on marked trails and boardwalks.

Which type of solution did the park employ?

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privatization

Read the description of the tragedy of the commons and identify the type of solution described.

Water is a necessary resource, and most cities and towns provide water to their citizens through a public utilities model. In 2014, the city of Flint, Michigan, switched its water supply from Detroit to the Flint River. The move resulted in water quality issues that sickened many people due to inadequate treatment and testing. After the water quality crisis, some people suggested that Flint should allow companies to bid for management of the city’s municipal water service. They argued that these companies would be incentivized to more closely monitor water quality at a lower cost because the city could contract with a different organization if the water quality suffered or the costs were too high.

Which type of solution does the suggestion to transfer water service management represent?

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regulation

Read the description of the tragedy of the commons and identify the type of solution described.

After World War II, the number of cars and trucks in the United States increased dramatically. The increase in motor vehicles created more air pollution, especially in cities. Higher levels of air pollution began to have a significant negative impact on public health and the environment. In order to address the growing health and environmental issues, the U.S. Congress passed the Clean Air Act. This legislation gave the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) the authority to limit pollution from vehicles.

Which type of solution did Congress employ?

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both a body of knowledge and the process used to get the knowledge

Which of the following defines science?

  • both a body of knowledge and the process used to get the knowledge

  • only the process used to get knowledge about a subject

  • only a body of knowledge about a subject

  • only the experiment done to aquire data

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Does playing video games improve hand-eye coordination?

Which of the following questions can be examined with empirical observations?

  • What is my cat thinking?

  • Is the death penalty wrong?

  • Does playing video games improve hand-eye coordination?

  • What is the meaning of life?

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observations

The scientific method is based on…

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Science allows us to test our ideas and evaluate the evidence.

Which of the following is TRUE about science?

  • Science can answer questions like "What is the meaning of life?"

  • Science allows us to test our ideas and evaluate the evidence.

  • Science can prove any hypothesis.

  • Science is only a body of knowledge.

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a hypothesis

A possible explanation for what we have observed based on previous knowledge is

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It increases the chance that only well-designed and well-conducted studies are actually published.

What is the value of peer review in the publication of research?

  • It is a way to ensure that original research is only published as a primary or secondary source.

  • It allows everyone who is interested to comment on published research.

  • It increases the chance that only well-designed and well-conducted studies are actually published.

  • It provides a rating system for quality that appears on any published paper.

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the bats in Europe and China were healthy.

The difference between the bats in the United States with the Pd fungus and bats found in Europe and China with the Pd fungus was that

  • the bats in the United States were immune to the fungus

  • the bats in Europe and China were dying at a faster rate.

  • the bats in Europe and China were healthy.

  • the bats in the United States had a more deadly form of the fungus.

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theory

If a hypothesis survives repeated testing by numerous research teams and in numerous ways, it may be incorporated into a

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less certain to more certain

In terms of certainty on a topic, science can take us from

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a theory

Which of the following represents the highest level of certainty assigned to an explanation in science?

  • a prediction

  • a hypothesis

  • absolute proof

  • a theory

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Body temperature is lower, and the immune system is suppressed.

How does hibernation affect bat physiology?

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the hairless areas like the wings, nose, and ears

Which areas on the bats help maintain their body temperature?

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bats with WNS have increased frequency of arousals.

The difference in hibernation between bats with WNS and bats in normal hibernation is that

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starvation

Scientists thought bats with WNS appeared to die of

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an observational study

By following bats of interest and collecting data on the body temperatures of 504 bats throughout the northeastern United States, which type of study did biologist DeeAnn Reeder perform?

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the length of sleep periods

Lisa Warnecke and researchers at the University of Winnipeg inoculated a group of bats with a solution containing Pd and then recorded how long the bats slept during hibernation. They compared the length of sleep periods to a group of bats who did not get Pd. What is the dependent variable in this experiment?

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the dependent variable

In an experiment, which of the following is measured to see if it is affected?

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independent variable; dependent variable

In an experimental study, scientists manipulate the _____ and measure the _____.

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compare its results to the test group's results.

The purpose of a control group in an experimental study is to

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There was no control group. We do not know how many bats would have died after 13 days without exposure to the fungus.

A researcher conducted an experiment to test whether exposure to the Pd fungus that causes white-nose syndrome harms bats. He exposed bats to this fungus and determined the percentage of bats that died. He found that 30% of the bats died after 13 days of exposure to the fungus.

Why would it be unreasonable to conclude that exposure to this fungus is harmful to bats?

  • Not enough bats were affected. More than 50% (half) would have to die to conclude that this fungus was harmful

  • The time frame was too brief. Exposure for only 13 days is not long enough to determine if the fungus is a problem.

  • There was no control group. We do not know how many bats would have died after 13 days without exposure to the fungus.

  • The wrong kind of test was done. This should have been an observational study, not an experimental study.

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an observational study

A group of scientists monitored plankton populations living in the southern oceans. They found that these populations did not perform as much photosynthesis in years when ozone depletion was high, compared to photosynthetic rates in years when ozone depletion was less.

This is an example of

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determine how likely it is that plankton photosynthetic rates were actually different when ozone levels differed.

A group of scientists monitored plankton populations living in the southern oceans. They found that these populations did not perform as much photosynthesis in years when ozone depletion was high, compared to photosynthetic rates in years when ozone depletion was less.

The plankton scientists evaluated their data with statistics in order to

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shows a correlation between WNS and number of bats.

Based on population counts conducted in winter, a bat colony infected by WNS declined sharply in number, while an uninfected colony did not. This observation

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if one thing caused the other to happen.

Observational studies cannot tell us

  • whether two or more factors are related.

  • if there is correlational evidence between two things.

  • if one thing caused the other to happen.

  • that two things occur together.

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an experimental study

Which of the following can tell us if two events are connected in a cause and effect relationship?

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a policy

A formalized plan that addresses a desired outcome or goal is

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the precautionary principle.

Acting in a way that leaves a safety margin when the data are uncertain or when severe consequences are possible is known as

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an interview with a scientist.

An example of a primary source of information would be

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tertiary source.

This textbook uses a variety of information sources, including peer-reviewed original research, interviews with researchers, review articles that summarize recent research on a topic, and governmental websites, to name a few.

Because of this, this textbook is considered what type of source?

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clickbait

While you are browsing the web, you see the title of an article about how your favorite celebrity just sold all their belongings because aliens told them to do it. This is most likely

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logical fallacies

Arguments used to attempt to sway a reader without using reasonable evidence are known as

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a red herring

A friend cautions you against using any household chemicals because she feels they are unsafe. She points to a study she read that provides evidence that Americans carry many toxic substances in their bodies, accumulated over time in their day to day activities. The evidence on which she bases her conclusion represents the logical fallacy known as

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Give preference to the work of well-known or highly published authors.

Which of the following is NOT a tenet of critical thinking?

  • Give preference to the work of well-known or highly published authors.

  • Be open-minded. Do not let your preconceived notions color your evaluations.

  • Be skeptical. Do not accept claims without evidence.

  • Evaluate evidence to determine how well it supports the claims presented.

  • Watch for author biases to identify any stake the author may have in the issue.

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hasty generalization.

An argument drawing a broad conclusion on too little evidence is a local fallacy known as the

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appeal to complexity

You are telling your friend that switching to renewable energy will help with climate change. She replies, "There are so many causes for climate change, we don't know that switching to renewables will do anything about it."

Which logical fallacy is your friend using?

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bacterium

Scientists found a common and naturally occurring _____ that could help reduce the amount of fungus growing on bats infected with WNS.

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The average household grows edible plants and shops for local produce.

In order for a civilization to survive, it needs to consume resources at a rate at which they can be replaced. Which of the approaches described below would be most likely to sustain a civilization?

  • The average household is filled with decorative goods that are processed and shipped across the ocean.

  • The average household imports food from outside the region and eats out at “farm to table” restaurants once a week.

  • The average household grows lush grasses and inedible shrubs, and waters them year-round.

  • The average household grows edible plants and shops for local produce.

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change in climate

Which of the following circumstances led to the collapse of the Khmer civilization?

  • change in climate

  • salty soils from irrigation

  • road building

  • reforestation

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monumental cities, extensive road networks, and vast trading routes.

The Khmer Empire was known best for

  • ritual sacrifice, a rigid religious system, and monumental temples.

  • monumental cities, a large livestock base, and an extensive alphabet.

  • monumental cities, extensive road networks, and vast trading routes.

  • unique pottery work, an extensive alphabet, and vast trading routes.

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monsoons

The most difficult environmental issue that the Khmer Empire dealt with was

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Cities concentrated populations, which increased the need for scarce water.

Which natural changes were amplified by the Khmer Empire’s choices?

  • Seasonal rains increased with decreasing rainforests area.

  • Cities concentrated populations, which increased the need for scarce water.

  • Forests regenerated faster when cut more often for timber.

  • Irrigated lands increased the saltiness of the soils.

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The settlers traveled 1300 miles across the ocean to arrive there.

Which of the following is TRUE about the settlers of Easter Island?

  • People were already living there when the settlers from Polynesia arrived.

  • The population of the island chain peaked at 100,000 people.

  • The island chain had been visited repeatedly over the years, but nobody stayed until the 1700s.

  • The settlers traveled 1300 miles across the ocean to arrive there.

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rats

The worst invasive species brought to Easter Island by the Polynesian settlers was

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The lush forests of the islands had been cut down, and the landscape was dominated by grasses.

By 1700 CE, the change in the island landscape is thought to have been dramatic. Which of the following best describes this potential change?

  • The large expanse of grassland had been converted to forests.

  • The large expanse of grassland was covered with volcanic lava flow and left barren.

  • The lush forests of the islands had been cut down, and the landscape was dominated by grasses.

  • The lush forests of the islands were overrun with kudzu vines and were being smothered.

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Inhabiting an isolated island with scarce resources can leave a civilization vulnerable in times of scarcity.

What is the primary lesson about human interaction with nature from the Easter Island example?

  • Inhabiting a volcanic island can leave a civilization vulnerable to fire.

  • Inhabiting an isolated island with scarce resources can leave a civilization vulnerable in times of scarcity.

  • Introducing new species onto an island can provide valuable resources if native species fail.

  • Altering the way rivers flow on an island can leave it vulnerable to deforestation.

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less likely, because they would not be able to produce enough food if conditions or needs changed

If the Maya had been careful not to cause deforestation, but to remain rigid in their agricultural practices, would they be more or less likely to survive a drought?

  • more likely, because they would have the tree roots to reduce erosion

  • more likely, because they would have the food provided by the trees as a backup

  • less likely, because they would not be able to produce enough food if conditions or needs changed

  • less likely, because the excess nutrients in the soil would have killed their crops

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Drought led to crop loss and resource scarcity.

Drought is a common theme in civilization collapse. What additional consequences did prolonged drought bring to Maya society?

  • Drought led to stronger monsoons and the reforestation of agricultural land.

  • Drought led to crop loss and resource scarcity.

  • Drought led to erosion and higher soil salinity.

  • Drought led to overpopulation and the introduction of invasive species.

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burning trees to heat limestone

Which of the following practices of the Maya may have unnecessarily contributed to the loss of their forests?

  • burning trees for religious bonfires

  • diverting water from forests

  • clearing land for agriculture

  • burning trees to heat limestone

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For every one to three years that the land is farmed, the land needs 15 years to recover.

In slash-and-burn agriculture, as used by the Maya, which of the following is TRUE?

  • For every one to three years that the land is farmed, the land needs 15 years to recover.

  • For every 15 years that the land is farmed, the land needs one to three years to recover.

  • For every one to three acres burned, at least 15 acres must remain fallow.

  • For every 15 acres burned, at least one to three acres must remain fallow.

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The loss of trees caused an increase in temperature and a decrease in rainfall.

Deforestation of the Maya rainforest may have increased their issues. Which of these statements explains why this may be TRUE?

  • The loss of trees increased the risk of fire and flooding.

  • The loss of trees caused an increase in temperature and a decrease in rainfall.

  • The loss of trees caused an increase in temperature and an increase in rainfall.

  • The loss of trees caused a decrease in temperature and a decrease in rainfall.

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seasonal rain and salinized soils

Which environmental factors could not be controlled by the Mesopotamians?

  • invasive pests and resource scarcity

  • seasonal rain and salinized soils

  • seasonal rain and deforestation

  • drought and deforestation

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deforestation

The use of widespread irrigation today in the Central Valley of California could be a cause of concern because of all of the following EXCEPT:

  • deforestation.

  • fires.

  • drought.

  • mineral salt deposits.

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overpopulated cities leading to periodic resource scarcity

Which set of characteristics most accurately describes problems faced by the Mesopotamians?

  • lack of ability to trade for natural resources

  • lack of edible strains of domesticated crops and animals

  • flooded streets carrying pollution

  • overpopulated cities leading to periodic resource scarcity

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watermills

Which characteristic does NOT describe what the Mesopotamians were best known for?

  • watermills

  • astronomy and mathematics

  • writing and industry

  • irrigation and ziggurats

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Desert soils became saltier as a result of irrigation.

Which natural challenge was amplified by the Mesopotamians’ choices?

  • Desert soils became saltier as a result of irrigation.

  • Crops suffered from a lack of diversity of domesticated plants.

  • Surrounding forests were cut down to provide wood for lime kilns.

  • Massive buildings required too much clay from the farms’ topsoil.

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Miami

Which city would be the hardest hit by a sea level rise of 3 feet?

  • Corpus Christi

  • New Orleans

  • Miami

  • New York City

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average annual temperature of 75 degrees Fahrenhei

What would be an example of climate?

  • a fall hurricane

  • rain on Tuesday

  • average annual temperature of 75 degrees Fahrenheit

  • a heat wave

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climate refugees

People who are forced to leave their homelands because of change related to the environment are called

  • climate refugees.

  • climate forcers.

  • generation global warming.

  • global warming migrants.

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weather; climate.

The meteorological conditions in a given place on a given day refer to its _____, whereas the long-term patterns and trends of meteorological conditions in that area are its _____.

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climate change

What is the most useful term for alterations in the long term patterns and averages of meteorological events?

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An increase in average global temperatures means we have more weather extremes that can cause problems.

Why is a change of a few degrees in average global temperatures more concerning than day-to-day weather changes of a few degrees?

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30

In general, scientists look for a _____ year trend before concluding that a new trend is emerging in the climate.

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more precipitation in coastal areas

What changes in weather have we seen with rising temperatures?

  • fewer drought events

  • more cold records set in temperature than hot ones

  • more precipitation in coastal areas

  • less extreme storms

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Land-based ice is melting and sending more water into the oceans.

Why are sea levels rising due to climate change?

  • There is more precipitation falling, causing the ocean levels to rise.

  • We have not seen sea levels rise yet because of climate change.

  • Icebergs are melting and adding volume to oceans.

  • Land-based ice is melting and sending more water into the oceans.

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Sea level is rising.

Which of the following is evidence that suggests climate is changing?

  • Global temperatures have increased about 1°C in the Arctic and Antarctic.

  • Glacial ice is getting thicker in Greenland.

  • Sea level is rising.

  • All areas of the planet are receiving more precipitation.

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earlier; later

Evidence for climate change shows the last spring frost is coming _____ and the first fall frost is coming _____.

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Species may lose important mutualistic partners.

What are some problems that climate change presents to species?

  • Species may lose important mutualistic partners.

  • If stationary species, like trees, cannot tolerate their environment, they have no means to adapt as a species. After all, trees cannot migrate.

  • Species that live in equatorial areas where it is already warm will be more strongly affected by the projected warming of climate change than species that live closer to the poles.

  • It is doubtful that any species will be able to adjust to the climate change that is occurring.

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mosquitoes

Which species would benefit from a warmer climate?

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climate forcer

Anything that alters the balance of incoming solar radiation relative to the amount of heat escaping into space is a

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burning fossil fuels

What is the biggest contributor to global warming?

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carbon dioxide

Which molecule currently accounts for three-fourths of all greenhouse gas emissions?

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methane

Which greenhouse gas is around 28 times more potent than carbon dioxide over the long term?

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an analysis of pollen grains trapped in layers of lake sediments

Which of these can be used by scientists to estimate past climates?

  • the number of annual rings in an ice core

  • the range and distribution of current species

  • an analysis of pollen grains trapped in layers of lake sediments

  • the Mauna Loa observatory data of atmospheric CO2 concentrations that shows CO2 levels rising and falling with the seasons

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how warm the water was when the skeleton was made.

The oxygen isotope ratio in coral skeletons can tell us

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a glacier

Which of the following would have the highest albedo?

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As ice melts, water is exposed, increasing the temperature even more and causing more melt.

Which of these is an example of a positive feedback loop related to global warming?

  • As ice melts, water is exposed, increasing the temperature even more and causing more melt.

  • As temperatures rise in coastal areas, more water evaporates but then falls back in the form of rain.

  • As CO2 levels rise in terrestrial ecosystems, some plants will grow faster and some slower.

  • As ocean waters warm, more hurricanes form, but they are weaker and cause less damage.

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reversing the response to an event.

A negative feedback loop works by

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changes in Earth's position in space relative to the sun

What natural event could cause climate to warm?

  • an increase in ice cover

  • a volcanic eruption

  • increased plant growth

  • changes in Earth's position in space relative to the sun

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climate change

What is the term for alterations in the long-term patterns and statistical averages of meteorological events?

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a climate forcer

Anything that alters the balance of incoming solar radiation relative to the amount of heat that escapes into space is called:

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Climate change has been damaging corals such as the Great Barrier Reef for the last 18 years.

What did Terry Hughes of the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies mean when he said that climate change is not a future threat to corals?

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increased crop yields

Impacts of global climate change include all of the following EXCEPT:

  • coastal flooding.

  • the spread of tropical diseases.

  • stronger storm surges.

  • increased crop yields.

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carbon dioxide

Which one of the following greenhouse gases released by human actions currently has the biggest total impact on climate?

  • nitrous oxide

  • halocarbons

  • carbon dioxide

  • methane

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mitigation

Carbon capture and sequestration are _____ efforts to minimize the extent or impact of climate change.

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Ultraviolet radiation has reduced crop production.

Ozone depletion is not an effect of climate change, nor is it affecting agriculture in this region. Instead, the changes that are occurring are due to the increase in average temperature resulting from climate change.

Of the following, which one does NOT describe the effect climate change is having on the Arctic?

  • Drinking water supplies have disappeared, as have villages.

  • Permafrost that was once rock solid is now thawing rapidly.

  • Sea ice is melting, which accelerates climate change.

  • Ultraviolet radiation has reduced crop production.

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the North Pole points toward Vega.

When the North Pole tilts toward Vega, it is also pointing toward the Sun. As a result, the Northern Hemisphere is warmer, making summers hotter in the Northern Hemisphere.

Summers in Earth's Northern Hemisphere are warmest when:

  • axial precession matches the orbital eccentricity.

  • the North Pole points toward Polaris, the current north star.

  • axial precession matches the axial tilt.

  • the North Pole points toward Vega.

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carbon sequestration.

Sequestering carbon is an attempt to minimize climate change and is, therefore, a mitigation strategy.

Climate change adaptation strategies include all of the following EXCEPT:

  • carbon sequestration.

  • water capture and conservation methods.

  • erosion-control crop techniques.

  • improved disease surveillance.

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The cold extremes would get colder, and the hot extremes would get hotter.

What would happen to temperature extremes if climate change produced a new summer temperature frequency curve that is broader and flatter, with no change in average temperature?

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carbon dioxide

With respect to climate forcing, which one of the following is a positive forcer?

  • helium

  • sulfur dioxide

  • carbon dioxide

  • oxygen gas

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Chicago

Areas near which one of the following cities were covered with an ice sheet about a half a mile thick during the last ice age?

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How much is climate change responsible for California's 2020 record-breaking fire season?

Which one of the following questions could climate science attribution be used to address?

  • What will the maximum temperatures be when the next heat waves strike Europe?

  • How many people will be forced to flee their homelands because of climate change?

  • How much is climate change responsible for California's 2020 record-breaking fire season?

  • When will coastal population centers have to be evacuated due to climate change?

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Data for past years is entered to see how well the model predictions match the observed climate during those years.

How are climate models tested?

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