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Building Material

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173 Terms

1

Building Material

Any material used for CONSTRUCTION

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2

Stress

Internal RESISTANCE to external forces

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3

Strain

DEFORMATION of a body under the action of applied force

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4

Elasticity

Ability of material to RETURN to its original shape after deformation

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5

Torsion

TWISTING of an elastic body caused by two EQUAL and OPPOSITE torques

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6

Bending

BOWLING of an elastic body as force is applied TRANSVERSELY

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7

Tension

The act of stretching or state of being pulled apart

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8

Strength

Capacity of material to resist PHYSICAL FORCES imposed on it.

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9

Compression

The state of being pushed together.

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10

Eccentric Force

Force applied parallel to the longitudinal axis but NOT to the centroid

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11

Stiffness

Measure of force required to push or pull a material into ELASTIC LIMIT.

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12

Ductility

Materials that undergo PLASTIC DEFORMATION for it to be drawn.

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13

Malleability

Permits deformation WITHOUT fracture. Forged into thin sheets.

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14

Brittleness

When subjected to stress, it breaks without significant deformation.

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15

Strength, Hardness, Durability, Workability, Density

Qualities of stone

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16

Stone

An aggregate or combination of minerals composed of inorganic chemical substances

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17

Igneous Rock

Formed by the CRYSTALLIZATION of magma.

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18

Metamorphic Rock

Rocks that had undergone change in structure due to high HEAT and PRESSURE.

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19

Sedimentary rock

Rock formed by the DEPOSITION and CONSOLIDATION of sediments by glacial action

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20

Rubble Stone

Stone delivered from quarries with rough and IRREGULAR shape.

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21

Dimension Stone

Stone cut into SPECIFIC SIZES and dimensions.

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22

Rubble Work

Masonry of ROUGH, undressed stones.

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23

Scrabbled Rubble

ONLY THE ROUGHEST irregularities are knocked off.

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24

Range Rubble

When stones in EACH course are rudely DRESSED TO A UNIFORM HEIGHT.

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25

Ashlar

SQUARED STONES in regular courses

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26

Ranged work/ Coursed Ashlar

UNIFORM courses with stones UNIFORM in size

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27

Broken Range Ashlar

Width of the courses and length of stones are VARIED to produce a less regular pattern.

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28

Random Course

LARGE stones combine with SMALL ones to achieve an interesting effect.

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29

Rustic or Rock work

Courses of stone face which is JAGGED to present a ROUGH surface

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30

Wood

Material gathered from TREES.

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31

Hardness, Flexibility, Strength, Durability

Properties of Natural Wood

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32

Softwood

Comes from the conifers which have NEEDLES instead of leaves.

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33

Hardwood

Comes from the BROAD-LEAVED or DECIDUOUS TREES.

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34

Sapwood

SOFTER YOUNGER portion of the tree that lies between the cambium.

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35

Heartwood

The OLDER, HARDER (:^) ) central portion of a tree.

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36

Decay

Defect in wood caused by the attack of FUNGI.

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37

Checks

Cracks ACROSS ANNUAL RING of growth. (Lengthwise)

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38

Shakes

Cracks PARALLEL to the ANNUAL RING of growth

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39

Knots

IRREGULAR GROWTHS in the body of a tree which interrupts the smooth grain of wood.

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40

Pitchpockets

Well defined openings containing SOLID or LIQUID PITCH.

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41

Wane

Lack of wood on the EDGE or CORNER

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42

Warping

Variation caused by unequal shrinkage of the board.

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43

Crook

Distortion of the board where the EDGE is CONVEX or CONCAVE longitudinal

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44

Bow

Distortion of the board where the FACE is CONVEX or CONCAVE longitudinal

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45

Cup

Distortion of the board where the FACE is CONVEX or CONCAVE ACROSS the board

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46

Twist

Distortion of the board where one CORNER is RAISED.

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47

Plainsawing

Lumber cut TANGENT to annual rings

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48

Quartersawing

Wood cut RADIALLY to annual rings at an angle of 45 and 90 deg.

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49

Lumber

Wood used in CONSTRUCTION

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50

Strips

Lumber LESS THAN 2" THICK AND LESS THAN 8" WIDE

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51

Board Lumber

Lumber LESS THAN 2" THICK and at least 8" WIDE

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52

Dimension Lumber

Lumber MORE THAN 2" THICK and LESS THAN 5" WIDE

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53

Timber

Lumber 5" MORE on the smallest dimension

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54

Nominal Size

Size of lumber when it is CUT from the log.

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55

Finished Size

FINAL SIZE after the lumber is dried and planed on all sides.

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56

Board Feet

Commercial standard for wood.

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57

Seasoning

Process of REMOVING MOISTURE from green wood

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58

Green Wood

FRESHLY CUT wood from logs.

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59

Air Drying

Lumber is EXPOSED TO AIR

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60

Kiln Drying

Placed in a KILN to dry.

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61

Concrete

Made by mixing CEMENT and various mineral aggregates with sufficient water to set and bind material.

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62

Portland Cement

Resembles a unique limestone found in the isle of PORTLAND.

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63

Pozzolan

Natural cement from PUZZUOLI, an ancient Roman town.

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64

Cement, Sand, Gravel, Water, Admixture

Concrete mixture.

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65

Type I Cement-

Normal- For general construction

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66

Type II Cement

Moderate - Sulfate resistant, used for large piers and heavy retaining walls

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67

Type III Cement

High Early Strength- Cures faster in 3-7 days and gains earlier strength

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68

Type IV Cement

Low Heat - Generates less heat hydration, used for massive concrete structures.

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69

Type V Cement

Sulfate Resistant - used where resistance to high sulfate action is needed.

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70

Mortar

Cement + Sand + Water

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71

Plaster

Cement + Lime + Sand + Water

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72

Grout

Cement + Sand + Considerable amount of water

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73

Paste

Cement + water

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74

Pozzolanic Admixture

Substitute for cement to DECREASE WEIGHT of concrete per cubic foot

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75

Water Reducing Admixture

Agent or super plasticizer that improves WORKABILITY of concrete

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76

Waterproofing Admixture

Admixture that renders finished product IMPERVIOUS to WATER

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77

Coloring Agent

PIGMENTS OR DYE are added to alter color

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78

Surface Sealing Agents

Liquid waxes sprayed over the surface to SEAL THE PORES of concrete

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79

Set Inhibiting Agent

INHIBITS the setting of cement paste.

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80

Bonding Agent

Improves the BOND of concrete

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81

Dispersal Agent

Prevents BLEEDING of concrete

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82

Air-Entraining Agent

Enables concrete to be highly RESISTANT AGAINST CORROSION.

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83

Gas-Forming Agent

Develops POTENTIAL STRENGTH in concrete

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84

Non-Skid Surfaces

Uses ABRASIVE material in TOPPINGS to prevent slips

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85

Hardener

Admixture that improves the DENSITY of concrete

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86

Accelerator

SPEEDS up the SETTING of concrete to reduce the whole curing period

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87

Retarder

DELAYS or EXTENDS the SETTING TIME of concrete.

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88

Manual Mixing

Mixing of concrete through the use of SHOVEL and BUGGY.

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89

Small Power Mixing

Manual Mixing using ROTATING DRUM

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90

Bagger Mixer

Equipment with DIESEL ENGINE for mixing concrete.

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91

Ready-Mixed

Concrete is MIXED AT THE PLANT for delivery

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92

Shrink-Mixed

Concrete is PARTIALLY MIXED at plant then MIXED COMPLETELY in a truck

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93

Transit Mixed

Concrete is a DRY BATCH at the plant and MIXED on the way to the site.

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94

Gunite

Concrete is pumped through a hose and SPRAYED at high velocity.

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95

Slump Test

Test to determine the consistency of concrete using a SLUMP CONE.

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96

Compressive Cylinder Test

Test to determine COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH of concrete mixture

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97

Reinforced Concrete

Technique of INFUSING metal rods or bars into concrete so that TENSION and COMPRESSION works hand in hand together without failure.

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98

Stratification

SEPARATION of lighter materials.

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99

Cast-in-place

Concrete deposited, formed and finished in its FINAL POSITION.

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100

Slip-Form

Form that is MOVED SLOWLY as concrete is being placed during construction

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