Chapter 2 - Understanding and Treating Mental Disorders

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Most contemporary explanations of mental disorders fall into four distinct camps

1 / 160

Tags and Description

Psych 270

161 Terms

1

Most contemporary explanations of mental disorders fall into four distinct camps

(a)biological views, including genetics and other physiological explanations; (b)psychological issues, rooted in the invisible complexities of the human mind; (c)dysfunctional social relationships, including stressful interactions with family members and peers; and (d)sociocultural influences, including the effects of discrimination and stressors related to race, gender, and poverty.

New cards
2

models

an analogy used by scientists, usually to describe or explain a phenomenon or process they cannot directly observe

New cards
3

Scientists now recognize that one-dimensional perspectives are overly simplistic because they

  • (a)

    set up a false “either–or” dichotomy between accepting one explanation or another (e.g., nature vs. nurture),

  • (b)

    neglect the possibility that a variety of circumstances contribute to the development of mental disorders, and

  • (c)

    fail to recognize the reciprocal interactions of the various contributing factors.

New cards
4

biopsychosocial model

the perspective suggesting that interactions between biological, psychological, and social factors cause mental disorders

New cards
5

sociocultural influences

factors such as gender, sexual orientation, spirituality, religion, socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, and culture that can exert an effect on mental health

New cards
6

multipath model

a model that provides an organizational framework for understanding the numerous influences on the development of mental disorders, the complexity of their interacting components, and the need to view disorders from a holistic framework

New cards
7

The multipath model is _____and _____.

interactive and intergrative

New cards
8

implusivity

a tendency to act quickly without careful thought

New cards
9

heterogeneous

different or diverse

New cards
10

protective factors

conditions or attributes that lessen or eliminate the risk of a negative psychological or social outcome

New cards
11

the forebrain

responsible for higher-level mental processes

New cards
12

the midbrain

involved with basic functions such as hearing and vision, motor movement, alertness and sleep–wake cycles, and temperature regulation

New cards
13

the hindbrain

responsible for instinctive behavior related to self-preservation and survival as well as basic bodily functions involving physiological equilibrium such as heartbeat, respiration, and digestion.

New cards
14

the left hemisphere of the brain is associated with?

many language functions

New cards
15

the right hemisphere of the brain is associated with?

visual-spatial abilities and has stronger connections to structures associated with emotion

New cards
16

forebrain

contains brain structures associated with characteristics that make us human—thoughts, perceptions, intelligence, language, personality, imagination, planning, organization, and decision making

New cards
17

cerebrum

the largest part of the brain, consisting of the right and left hemisphere

New cards
18

cerebral cortex

the outermost layers of brain tissue; covers the cerebrum

New cards
19

neurons

a nerve cell that transmits messages throughout the body

New cards
20

prefrontal cortex

the outer layer of the prefrontal lobe responsible for inhibiting instinctive responses and performing complex cognitive behavior such as managing attention, behavior, and emotions

New cards
21

executive functioning

mental processes that involve the planning, organizing, and attention required to meet short-term and long-term goals

New cards
22

limbic system

a group of deep brain structures associated with emotions, decision making, and memory formation

New cards
23

amygdala

the brain structure involved with physiological reactivity and emotional memories

New cards
24

hippocampus

the part of the brain involved in forming, organizing, and storing memories

New cards
25

autonomic nervous system (ANS)

a system that coordinates basic physiological functions and regulates physical responses associated with emotional reactions

New cards
26

hypothalamus

the brain structure that regulates bodily drives, such as hunger, thirst, and sexual response, and body conditions, such as body temperature and circadian rhythms

New cards
27

hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis

a system activated under conditions of stress or emotional arousal

New cards
28

pituitary glandthe gland that stimulates hormones associated with growth, sexual and reproductive development, metabolism, and stress responses

the gland that stimulates hormones associated with growth, sexual and reproductive development, metabolism, and stress responses

New cards
29

hormones

regulatory chemicals that influence various physiological activities, such as metabolism, digestion, growth, and mood

New cards
30

adrenal gland

a gland that releases sex hormones and other hormones, such as cortisol, in response to stress

New cards
31

gila

the cells that support and protect neurons

New cards
32

neural circuits

a signal-relaying network of interconnected neurons

New cards
33

dendrites

a short, rootlike structure on the neuron cell body that receives signals from other neurons

New cards
34

axon

an extension on the neuron cell body that sends signals to other neurons, muscles, and glands

New cards
35

axon terminals

bulblike swellings

New cards
36

Thus, dendrites bring information __ the body of the cell and axons carry information _____ from the cell.

to, away

New cards
37

myelination

the process by which myelin sheaths increase the efficiency of signal transmission between nerve cells

New cards
38

gray matter

brain tissue comprised of the cell bodies of neurons and glia

New cards
39

Effective communication between neurons relies on both ______ impulses and ______ signals

electrical, chemical

New cards
40

neurotransmitters

any of a group of chemicals that help transmit messages between neurons

New cards
41

synapse

a tiny gap that exists between the axon of the sending neuron and the dendrites of the receiving neuron

New cards
42

reuptake

the reabsorption of a neurotransmitter after an impulse has been transmitted across the synapse

New cards
43

enteric nervous system (ENS)

an independent neural system involved with digestion; capable of signaling the brain regarding stress and other emotions

New cards
44

homeostasis

the ability to maintain internal equilibrium by adjusting physiological processes

New cards
45

neuropeptides

small molecules that can directly and indirectly influence a variety of hormones and neurotransmitters

New cards
46

neuroplasticity

the ability of the brain to change its structure and function in response to experience

New cards
47

neurogenesis

the birth and growth of new neurons

New cards
48

neural stem cells

uncommitted cells that can be stimulated to form new neurons and glia

New cards
49

heredity

the genetic transmission of personal characteristics

New cards
50

traits

a distinguishing quality or characteristic of a person, including a tendency to feel, perceive, behave, or think in a relatively consistent manner

New cards
51

genes

segments of DNA coded with information needed for the biological inheritance of various traits

New cards
52

genome

the complete set of DNA in a cell; the human genome consists of approximately 30,000 genes located in the nucleus of every cell

New cards
53

genotype

a person’s genetic makeup

New cards
54

phenotype

observable physical and behavioral characteristics resulting from the interaction between the genotype and the environment

New cards
55

genetic mutations

an alteration in a gene that changes the instructions within the gene; some mutations result in biological dysfunction

New cards
56

alleles

the gene pair responsible for a specific trait

New cards
57

polymorphisms

a common DNA mutation or variation of a gene

New cards
58

Epigenetics

a field of biological research focused on understanding how environmental factors influence gene expression

New cards
59

gene expression

the process by which heritable information in a gene is translated into a specialized function within a cell; although the DNA within the cell does not change, epigenetic changes can be passed on to new cells during cell division and can be inherited

New cards
60

Epigenetic modifications appear to result from four primary categories of environmental influences:

nutrition, behavior, exposure to stress, and contact with toxins

New cards
61

Psychopharmacology

the study of the effects of psychotropic medications on thoughts, emotions, and behaviors

New cards
62

psychiatric medications correct physiological imbalances by __________ biochemical processes

normalizing

New cards
63

Classes of medication used to treat mental disorders include

  • (a)

    antianxiety drugs (or minor tranquilizers),

  • (b)

    antipsychotics (or major tranquilizers),

  • (c)

    antidepressants (used for both depression and anxiety), and

  • (d)

    mood stabilizers (sometimes called antimanic drugs).

New cards
64

used to calm people and to help them sleep

anti anxiety medication

New cards
65

treat the agitation, mental confusion, and loss of contact with reality associated with psychotic symptoms

antipsychotic medications

New cards
66

psychotic symptoms

the loss of contact with reality that may involve disorganized thinking, false beliefs, or seeing or hearing things that are not there

New cards
67

extrapyramidal symptoms

side effects of antipsychotic medications that can affect a person’s gait, movement, or posture

New cards
68

Some atypical antipsychotics reduce ________ transmission by loosely binding to dopamine receptors

dopamine

New cards
69

prescribed to help relieve symptoms of depression and anxiety. There are several well-known classes of antidepressants.

antidepressant medications

New cards
70

The primary difference between SSRIs and other antidepressants is that SSRIs specifically target the neurotransmitter serotonin whereas others target ________ neurotransmitters.

multiple

New cards
71

____________ are now being used for some psychological disorders

probiotics

New cards
72

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

a procedure that can change brain chemistry and reverse symptoms associated with some mental disorders

New cards
73

psychosurgery

performing brain surgery in an attempt to correct a severe mental disorder

New cards
74

deep brain stimulation (DBS)

involves implanting electrodes that produce ongoing stimulation of specific areas of the brain.

New cards
75

vagus nerve stimulation

involves surgically implanting a pacemaker-like device under the skin on the chest; when activated, the device sends signals along a wire connected to the vagus nerve

New cards
76

vagus nerve

a nerve that creates a mind-body pathway from the brain through the digestive tract to the abdomen; regulates autonomic nervous system processes and body reactivity

New cards
77

repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)

involves stimulation of the prefrontal cortex and regions of the brain involved with mood regulation; this is done by means of magnetic pulses emitted from an electromagnetic coil held against the forehead

New cards
78

Criticisms of Biological Models and Therapies?

Biological models are criticized for their failure to consider an individual’s unique life circumstances or psychological, social, or cultural influences on a person’s symptoms

New cards
79

drug-drug interactions

when the effect of a medication is changed, enhanced, or diminished when taken with another drug, including herbal substances

New cards
80

The psychological dimension focuses on:

emotions, learned behavior, and cognitions

New cards
81

Psychodynamic models

a model of psychopathology concerned with unconscious conflicts

New cards
82

The __ operates from the pleasure principle

id

New cards
83

pleasure principle

the impulsive, pleasure-seeking aspect of our being, from which the id operates

New cards
84

the ___ represents the realistic and rational part of the mind. It is influenced by the reality principle

ego

New cards
85

reality principle

an awareness of the demands of the environment and of the need to adjust behavior to meet these demands, from which the ego operates

New cards
86

Moralistic considerations are the domain of the ________

superego

New cards
87

psychosexual stages

in psychodynamic theory, the sequence of stages—oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital—through which human personality develops

New cards
88

the oral

first year of life

New cards
89

anal

around the second year of life

New cards
90

phallic

beginning around the third or fourth years of life

New cards
91

latency

approximately 6 to 12 years of age

New cards
92

genital

beginning in puberty

New cards
93

Fixation ______ emotional development at a particular psychosexual stage

halts

New cards
94

defense mechanisms

in psychoanalytic theory, an ego-protection strategy that shelters the individual from anxiety, operates unconsciously, and distorts reality

New cards
95

psychoanalysis

therapy aimed at helping clients uncover repressed material, achieve insight into inner motivations and desires, and resolve childhood conflicts that affect current relationships

New cards
96

free association

a psychoanalytic therapeutic technique in which clients are asked to say whatever comes to mind for the purpose of revealing their unconscious thoughts

New cards
97

Dream analysis

a psychoanalytic technique focused on interpreting the hidden meanings of dreams

New cards
98

resistance

during psychoanalysis, a process in which the client unconsciously attempts to impede the analysis by preventing the exposure of repressed material

New cards
99

transference

the process by which a client undergoing psychoanalysis reenacts early conflicts by applying to the analyst feelings and attitudes that the person has toward significant others

New cards
100

Contemporary psychodynamic therapists view experiences with early attachment figures as having powerful effects on current _____________ difficulties.

interpersonal

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 133867 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(628)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard24 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard64 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard23 terms
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard102 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard80 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard97 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard46 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard90 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)