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1

Psychodynamic

**The study of the mental and emotional processes that influence behavior**.

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2

Evolutionary Psychology

**the study of behaviour, thought, and feeling as viewed through the lens of evolutionary biology**

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3

Structuralism vs Functalism

Structuralism is the interpretation of the perception of the world through our senses, and understanding our environment. Structuralism focuses on consciousness and perception. Functionalism focuses on why human behavior changes.

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4

Nature vs Nurture

“Nature” means innate biological factors (namely genetics), while “nurture” can refer to upbringing or life experience more generally.

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5

Structuralism

**a mode of knowledge of nature and human life that is interested in relationships rather than individual objects**

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6

Freudian Psychology

**Human behavior is influenced by unconscious memories, thoughts, and urges**

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7

What is hindsight bias?

Believing you could have predicted an outcome all along.

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8

What do scientists rely on?

Scientific methods based on empirical data and observation.

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9

Define theory.

A coherent network of explanatory ideas.

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10

What are hypotheses?

Scientific predictions derived from a theory.

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11

What is the survey method?

Gathering information on attitudes through questionnaires or interviews.

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12

What is a pilot study?

A mini study conducted before the official study to identify issues or mistakes.

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13

What is required to generalize from a sample to a population?

A representative sample.

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14

What is a biased sample?

A sample that is not representative of the population.

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15

How can you obtain a representative sample?

By using random sampling, where each person has an equal chance of being selected.

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16

What is naturalistic observation?

Measuring or describing behavior in a natural setting.

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17

What is experimenter bias?

The influence of an observer's perceived expectations on the people being observed.

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18

What is a participant observer?

Someone who participates with a group while secretly gathering information.

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19

What is inter-observer reliability?

Comparing observations with other observers to ensure consistency.

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20

What is the experimental method?

Manipulating variables to observe their effects and controlling other variables.

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21

What is an independent variable?

The variable manipulated by the experimenter to observe its effect on the dependent variable.

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22

What is the dependent variable?

The variable whose performance is measured to see if it is affected by the independent variable.

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23

Give an example of an independent variable.

Changing values or alcohol dosage.

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24

What is the purpose of controlling variables in an experiment?

To isolate the effects of the independent variable and minimize confounding factors.

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25

Dependent Variable

Behavior measured to see if IV had an effect

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Confounding Variable

Factor that can affect the DV

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27

Control Group

Group used as a standard for comparison

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Experimental Group

All groups except the control group

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Confounding Variable

Factor that changes with the IV and interferes with the results

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30

Placebo Control Group

Control group used in drug studies to control subjects' expectations

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31

Random Assignment

Randomly assigning subjects to groups

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32

Random assignment

Assigning participants to groups by chance

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33

Correlation method of research

Measures the relationship between two variables

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34

Positive correlation

Both variables change in the same direction

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Negative correlation

Both variables change in opposite directions

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36

Cause and effect in correlation

Cannot be inferred

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37

Case studies

In-depth study of an individual or group

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38

Experimental method of research

Manipulating variables to determine cause and effect

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39

Advantages of experimental method

Infer cause and effect, control over situation

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Disadvantages of experimental method

Not behaving naturally

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41

Scatterplot

Graph showing results of an experiment

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42

Prediction from scatterplot

Results can be predicted visually

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43

Correlation coefficient (r)

Statistical index of relationship between variables

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44

Strength of relationship in correlation coefficient

Ranges from 0 to 1, with 1 being perfect

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45

Self-fulfilling prophecy

Belief that leads to its own fulfillment

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46

What is social psychology?

Study of how individuals interact with and influence each other.

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47

What is the self-fulfilling prophecy?

Belief that leads to its own fulfillment.

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48

What is the confirmation bias?

Beliefs that confirm themselves by influencing others.

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49

How can expectations influence behavior?

Expectations can influence behavior and cause them to come true.

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50

What is the process of false expectations leading to confirmation?

self fulfiling prophecy

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51

What is a double-blind study?

Both subject and experimenter are unaware of the subject's assigned condition.

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52

What is the purpose of statistics in research?

To analyze and make sense of data.

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53

What are the two types of data in statistics?

Inferential and descriptive statistics.

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54

What is descriptive statistics?

Summarizing and organizing data to describe its characteristics.

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55

What are the three types of central tendency?

Mean, median, and mode.

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56

What is the mean?

Sum of all values divided by the number of observations.

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What is the median?

Value that divides the distribution in half.

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What is the mode?

Most frequent value in the dataset.

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59

What does variability represent?

How much scores spread out from the mean.

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60

What is the range?

Difference between the highest and lowest score.

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61

What is the standard deviation?

Measure of the average deviation of scores from the mean.

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62

How does the standard deviation relate to score spread?

Greater spread of scores leads to a higher standard deviation.

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63

What is a normal distribution?

A bell-shaped curve representing a symmetrical distribution of data.

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64

What is inferential statistics?

Determines confidence in results obtained from samples.

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65

What does it mean if results are statistically significant?

Results are not due to chance.

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66

How can you determine if results are statistically significant?

If the probability is less than p05.

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67

What is the biopsychosocial approach?

Behavior influenced by biological, psychological, and social factors.

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68

What are some biological influences on behavior?

Genetic predispositions, natural selection, genes responding to the environment.

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69

What are some psychological influences on behavior?

Learned fears, emotional responses, cognitive processing.

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70

What are some social-cultural influences on behavior?

Presence of others, cultural expectations, peer influences.

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71

What is Freud's psychoanalytic perspective?

Importance of the unconscious and instincts.

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72

What are the basic building blocks of Freud's theory?

Instincts.

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73

What are the life and death instincts according to Freud?

Instincts we are born with.

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74

What are the three structures of personality according to Freud?

ID, Ego, Superego.

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75

What is the ID?

Unconscious structure that contains instincts.

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76

When does the Ego develop?

Around 13-15 months.

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77

What is the role of the Ego?

Evaluates the environment realistically.

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What is the Superego?

Internalized moral standards and ideals.

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79

What is the pleasure principle?

Striving for immediate gratification.

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80

What are neo-Freudians?

Followers of Freud who expanded on his theories.

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81

What is the importance of normally distributed variables in psychology?

Most psychological variables follow a normal distribution.

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82

What does statistically significant mean?

Results are not due to chance.

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83

How can you determine if results are statistically significant?

If the probability is less than p05.

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84

ID

Unconscious, pleasure-seeking part of the mind

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85

Ego

Mediates between ID and superego

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86

Superego

Internalized moral standards

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87

Stages of psychological development

Oral, anal, phallic, latency

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Erogenous zone

Zone that needs pleasure-producing stimulation

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89

Oral stage

Birth - 15 months, baby seeks pleasure through sucking

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Anal stage

Starts at 8 months, child gets pleasure from pooping

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91

Phallic stage

4 years, superego develops, oedipus complex

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Genitals

Boy is sexually attracted to mom, fears castration

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Resolution

Conflictual feelings repressed, dad becomes sex role model

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Phallic Stage Electra

Girls attracted to dad, penis envy

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95

Stage 4 Latency stage

5 years - puberty, no erogenous zone with genitals

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96

Fixation

Desire tied to object connected to earlier phase

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97

Regression

Defense mechanism, when frustrated you behave in a way that is typical of someone in an earlier psychosexual development

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Defense mechanisms

Ways to reduce anxiety

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99

Neurotic Anxiety

Indirect outlet of ID energy, reduced when people feel better

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100

Unconscious

Provides indirect discharge of ID energy

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