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102 Terms

1

energy

ability to do work

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2

system

portion of universe of sample that is being studied

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3

surroundings

remainder of universe

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4

specific heat

amt of heat necessary to raise 1g of a substance to 1C

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5

joule

SI unit for energy

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6

calorie

amt of heat necessary to raise 1g of H2O to 1C

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7

exothermic process

  1. releases heat/gives heat to surroundings

  2. ΔH (change in enthalpy) is negative,

  3. products have lower energy than reactants

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8

endothermic

  1. reactions that absorb heat from surroundings

  2. products have greater energy than reactants

  3. ΔH is positive

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9

first law of thermodynamics

energy cannot be created nor destroyed

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10

entropy

ΔS, amount of disorder in a system

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11

second law of thermodynamics

the entropty in the universe if increased of stays the same (drawn towards more disorder)

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12

what does ΔH mean

change in enthalpy

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13

what does ΔS mean

change in entropy

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14

is this exo/endo?: ΔH is positive

endo

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15

is this exo/endo?: products are lower than reactants

exo

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16

is this exo/endo?: heat is given off to the surroundings

exo

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17

is this exo/endo?: the reation feels cool to the touch

endo

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18

ΔH f is

enthalpy of formation

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19

the enthalpy of formation for any element in its standard state is ___ joules

0

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20

when water turns to liquid to steam, entropy ___ and ΔS is ____

idk why it did that but anyways the answers r INCREASE and POSITIVE

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21

how are wavelength and frequency related to each other?

inversely

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22

how are energy and frequency related to each other?

directly

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23

what is the speed of light in a vacuum?

3.0x10^8

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24

what colors are of the visible spectrum in order from lowest to highest wavelength?

red orange yellow green blue indigo violet

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25

which colors have the highest and lowest frequencies?

violet has highest frequency and shortest wavelength, red had lowest frequency and longest wavelength

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26

light is both a…

wave and particle

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27

pauli exclusion principle

no 2 electrons can have the same 4 quantum particles

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28

aufbau principle

lower energy orbitals fill w/ electrons first

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29

heisenburg uncertainty princple

it is impossible to know the position and momentum of any electron at the same time

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30

line spectrum

specific wavelength given off by a particular element

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31

ground state (of an electron)

lowest energy orbital an electron can occupy

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32

excited state

when an electron occupies a higher orbital than the ground state

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33

Orbital sublevel information

S - 1 orbital, 2 electrons per sublevel

P - 3 orbitals, 6 electrons per sublevel

D - 5 orbitals, 10 electrons per sublevel

F - 7 orbitals, 14 electrons per sublevel

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34

how many electrons are on the third energy level of an atom

formula - 2n^2 → N = the energy level → 2(3)^2 = 18

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35

what is the shape of an S orbital

a sphere

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36

what is the shape of a P orbital

a dumbbell

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37

metals

metallic, conduct electricity

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38

non-metals

non metallic, do not conduct electricityh

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39

halogens

group 17, highly reactive non metals

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40

metalloids

on the stairstep, has properties of both metals and nonmetals

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41

transition metals

groups 3-12

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42

inner transition metals

lactinides and actinides (long 2 rows at the bottom of periodic table)

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43

alkali metals

group 1, highly reactive metals that are soft

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44

alkaline earth metals

group 2, less reactive than group 1

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45

noble gases

group 18, stable/unreactive nonmetals

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46

what is the most abundant element in the universe

hydrogen

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47

what is the most electro negative element

Fluorine

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48

how much of our air is made up of nitrogen

78%

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49

how much of our air is mad eup of oxygen

21%

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50

what is the only metal that turns to liquid at room temperature

mercury

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51

what are the different forms of carbon?

black solid, coal, and diamond

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52

are halogens easily attainable in their elemental form?

no

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53

groups are … on the periodic table

columns

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54

periods are …. on the periodic table

rows

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55

are elements in the same group similar?

yes

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56

does atomic radius increase of decrease if you go down a group on the periodic table?

increase

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57

does AR decrease or increasde as you go from left to right on PT

decrease

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58

ionization energy

minimum energy necessary to remove first electron from outermost energy level to form a cation

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59

what is the trend for ionization energy down a group

decrease

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60

what is the trend in electronegativity if you go from left to right

increase

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61

what is the trend for electronegativity if you go down a group

decrease

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62

why do elements bond

to achieve a lower energy lvl

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63

wht is the octet rule

atoms will gain/lose/share an electron to achieve a noble gas configuration (8 valence electrons)

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64

which element does not adhere to the octet rule

hydrogen

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65

how do covalent bonds form

they share electrons

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66

what elements make up covalent bonds

non-metal and non-metal

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67

what are the main properties of covalent compounds

gases, liquids, low-melting solids, don’t conduct electricity

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68

polar bond

unequal sharing of bonded electrons between 2 elements of different identities and electronegativities

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69

non-polar bond

equal sharing of two elements that are of the same element

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70

what do δ+ and δ− mean?

partial charge

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71

which of the following bonds are polar: H-H, H-Cl, H-F

H-H

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72

as the electronegativity difference increases between bonded atoms, what happens to the polarity of the bond

the polarity increases

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73

how are ionic bonds formed

they transfer from metal to non-metal

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74

what types of elements make up ionic bonds

metal and non-metal

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75

what are the main properties of ionic compounds

solids, crystaline solids, high melting point, conducts electricity

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76

what is electrostatic force

an attractive yet repulsive force caused by the electricity charges particles

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77

how are metallic bonds formed

metals bond to metals

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78

what is the theory that describes metallic bonds

sea of electrons theory

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79

what are some of the properties for metallic bonds

shiny, conduct electricity, and malleable

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80

what does a line mean in a lewis structure

a bond was formed

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81

how many electrons are shared and a double and triple bond

4, and 6

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82

what are lone pairs fo electrons

non-bonding electrons

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83

solution

homogeneous mixture w/ 2 parts

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84

solvent

substance in greater amounts and does the dissolving in the mixture

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85

solute

substance in greater amounts that is in lesser amounts, that is getting dissolved in the mixture

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86

miscible

mix completely to form one phase (example - hydrogen peroxide mixture)

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87

immiscible

does not completely mix and forms 2 phases (oil and water)

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88

dissociation

separation of an ionic substance into separate ions

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89

the 3 ways to increase rate that sugar dissolves in water

mix, heat up, and crush

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90

like dissolves like

general rule to solubility: polar dissolves polar and non-polar dissolves non-polar

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91

saturated solution

dissolved as much solute in solvent that will stay in solution at equilibrium

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92

unsaturated solution

solution that has less solute than it could at equilibrium

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93

super saturated solution

solution that contains more solute than could stay in the solution at equilibrium

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94

how does pressure affect the solubility of a gas in a liquid

increases solubility w/ increased pressure

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95

how does temperature affect the solubility of a gas in a liquid

solubility of gas decreases w increasing temperature

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96

molarity

M = mols of solute/liters of solution

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97

molality

m = mols of solute/kg of solvent

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98

colligative properties depend on … rather than the …

amount of particles, not the type

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99

the boiling point of a liquid is where the …..

vapor pressure is the same as the atmospheric pressure

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100

when solute is added to pure solvetn, what happens to the vapor pressure?

the vapor pressure increases

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