Cog Neuro

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Neurons

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143 Terms

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Neurons

cells in the nervous system that communicate with one another to perform information-processing tasks

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Glia

Cells that support the functionality of the neurons by providing physical support, supplying nutrients and enhancing neuronal communication.

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Cell Body (soma)

The part of a neuron that coordinates information-processing tasks and keeps the cell alive.

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Dendrites

The part of the neuron that receives information from other neurons and relays it to the cell body.

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Axon

The part of a neuron that transmits information to other neurons, muscles or glands.

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Myelin Sheath

An insulating layer of fatty material made up of glial cells.

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Synapse

The junction or region between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of another.

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Sensory Neurons

Neurons that receive information from the external world and and convey this information to the brain vis the spinal cord.

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Motor Neurons

Neurons that carry signals from the spinal cprd to the muscles to produce movement.

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Interneurons

Nerons that connect sensory neurons, motor neurons or other interneurons.

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Resting Potential

The difference in electric charge between the inside and outside of a neurons cell membrane.

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Action Potential

An electric signal that is conducted along the length of a neuron's axon to a synapse.

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Refractory Period

The time following an action potential during which a new action potential cannot be initiated.

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Terminal Buttons

Knoblike structures that branch out from an axon.

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Cognitive Neuroscience

the scientific study of biological substrates underlying cognition with a specific focus on the neutral substrates of mental processes. It addresses the questions of how psychological/cognitive functions are produced by neural circuits in the brain.

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Why Neuroscience matters?

Humans (and animals) are biological systems

The basic assumption of all modern neuroscience and psychology: Mental functions are the product of activity in the nervous system

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What does the nervous system do?

Receives sensory information from the environment Integrates and processes information Regulates internal functions Produces motor actions

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Levels of Observation:

Genes & DNA - make up Cells - basic units of structure/function Tissues - groups of cells of same kind Organs - structures composed of more than one tissue, work together to perform specific function Systems - groups of organs that work together to perform specific function Body

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Structure of a living cell:

Nucleolus Nucleus Mitochondria Channels Other proteins Membrane

<p>Nucleolus Nucleus Mitochondria Channels Other proteins Membrane</p>
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How many cells are there in the brain?

170 billion - 85 billion neurons, 85 billion glia cells

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The structure of a neuron:

Nucleus Cell Body (Soma) Dendrites Axon Axon Hillock Myelin Sheath Axon terminal

<p>Nucleus Cell Body (Soma) Dendrites Axon Axon Hillock Myelin Sheath Axon terminal</p>
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Axon Hillock

Receives inputs from different cells and sends them along the axon.

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Axon Terminal

forms synapses with dendrites of other neurons

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Communication WITHIN a synapse is...

Electrical

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Communication BETWEEN synapses are...

Chemical

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Neurotransmitters

Chemicals that transmit information across the synapse to a receiving neuron's dendrites.

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Receptors

Parts of the cell membrane that receive neurotransmitters and initiate a new electrical signal.

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Spacial Summation

when the dendrites are stimulated from various neighbouring cells.

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Temporal Summation

one cell repeatedly trying to stimulate a cell

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Action Potential

Electricity: most single atoms have an electric charge, charged atoms are called ions An overall difference in charge between nearby areas creates an electric potential (aka voltage)

Chemistry: Diffusion - particles diffuse to equate concentrations across space

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What is multiple sclerosis?

Autoimmune disease where one's own immune system damages the myelin sheath.

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Type of neuron in the cerebellum?

Purkinje cell

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Type of neuron in hippocampus?

Pyramidal cell

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Type of neuron in Retina?

Bipolar cell

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Motor neuron disease is...

a family of diseases in which motor neurons degenerate and die, leading to weakness, paralysis and eventually death

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Synaptic Transmission

Communication BETWEEN neurons

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EPSP

Excitatory Post-Synaptic Potential

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IPSP

Inhibitory Post-Synaptic Potential

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Excitatory Signal

tells neurotransmitter to fire

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Inhibitory Signal

tells neurotransmitter NOT to fire

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Glutamate

most common excitatory neurotransmitterimportant for learning and memory too much -> seizures/migraines OCD

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GABA (Gamma-aminobutyric acid)

most common inhibitory neurotransmitter counteracts glutamate regulates and prevents over-excitation GABA deficiency -> seizures, tremors, insomnia/increased responsiveness to stress Increased risk of anxiety disorders and phobias

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Acetylcholine (ACh)

Regulates motor control Excitatory in synapses between neurons and skeletal muscles Inhibitory in synapses between neurons an the heart important for attention, learning, memory, arousal... too much -> role in depression deficiency -> alzheimer's disease -> degeneration of cholinergic neurons

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Dopamine

Important role in movement, motivation Tied to addiction too much -> inked to schizophrenia deficiency -> tremors, difficulty initiating and stopping movement -> parkinsons disease

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Serotonin

regulates mood, appetite, sleep involved in arousal and aggression involved in cognitive functions -> learning and memory

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Endorphins

chemicals that act within the pain pathways and emotion centres of the brain

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Agonists

drug that mimics or increases the action of a neurotransmitter

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Antagonist

Drug that blocks the effect of a neurotransmitter

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Block reuptake agonists:

Prozac (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) & Cocaine (blocks dopamine, norepinephrine & serotonin reuptake)

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Increase production of neurotransmitter agonist:

L-dopa (precursor of dopamine, used for parkinson's)

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Increase neurotransmitter release agonist:

Amphetamines (stimulate release of dopamine and norepinephrine)

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Agonist - Blind and activate post-synaptic receptors:

Nicotine (activates Ach receptors) Cannabis (activates CB1 cannabinoid receptor - anandamide)

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Antagonist - prevent release of neurotransmitter:

Botulinum Toxin (prevents ACh vesicles from fusing with membrane)

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Antagonist - bind to post synaptic receptor and block it:

Haloperidol (prevents dopamine from activating receptors by blocking them; used to treat schizophrenia)

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Nervous System

an interacting network of neurons that conveys electrochemical cells throughout the body -> the bodys command centre

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Central Nervous System (CNS)

part of the nervous system that is composed of the brain and the spinal cord

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Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

part of nervous system that connects the central nervous system to the body's organs and muscles "outside the brain and spinal cord"

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Somatic Nervous System (SNS)

nerves that convey information into and out of the central nervous system important for forming movements attached to bones/tendons that allow us to move

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Automatic Nervous System (ANS)

set of nerves that carry involuntarily and automatic commands that control blood vessels, body organs and glands.

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Sympathetic nervous system

A set of nerves that prepare the body for action in a threatening situation. increases arousal survival related action FOUR F'S

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Parasympathetic Nervous system

a set of nerves that help the body return to a normal resting state reduces arousal

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Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems act in a _________ manner...

CO-ORDINATED

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SYMP vs PARASYMP

  • eyes

  • bronchi

  • heartbeat

  • digestive activity

  • glucose release/gallbladder

  • adrenaline??

  • bladder

  • sex organs?

knowt flashcard image
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Central Nervous System Terminology: 4 Legged Mammal

  • Front

  • Back

  • Above

  • Below

Front - rostral/anterior Back - caudal/posterior Above - dorsal Below - Ventral

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Central Nervous System Terminology: 2 Legged Mammal (Human)

  • Front

  • Back

  • Front

  • Back

Front - rostral/anterior Back - caudal/posterior Front - Ventral Back - Dorsal

<p>Front - rostral/anterior Back - caudal/posterior Front - Ventral Back - Dorsal</p>
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Central Nervous System Terminology: In the Brain

  • Above

  • Below

Above - Dorsal Below - Ventral

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Spinal Column

  • made up of tiny bones

  • vertebrae protect the spinal cord

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Spinal Reflexes

Simple pathways in the nervous system that rapidly generate muscle contractions

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Hindbrain

An area of the brain that coordinates information coming into and out of the spinal cord.

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Dorsal horn location and function...

back of spinal cord receives sensory information

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Ventral horn location and function...

Front of spinal cord sends signals to thee body to initiate motor movement

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Gray matter (cortex)...

where the cell bodies are in the brain (dendrites)

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White matter...

where myelinated axons are in the brain

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Left/Right function in the brain...

Left control right side of body Right controls left side of body

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Left/Right function in the spinal cord...

Left controls left side of body Right controls right side of body

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Dorsal/Ventral Horn effect whether one has difficulty with....

Paralysis (ventral) Sensation (dorsal)

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Folds within the brain allow for more...

cortex

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<p>Name the view/slice of the brain...</p>

Name the view/slice of the brain...

Horizontal/Axial/Transverse

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<p>Name the view/slice of the brain...</p>

Name the view/slice of the brain...

Sagittal

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<p>Name the view/slice of the brain...</p>

Name the view/slice of the brain...

Coronal

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The 3 major divisions of the brain are....

Forebrain Midbrain Hindbrain

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Hindbrain

an area of the brain that coordinates information coming into and out of the spinal cord

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The hindbrain is phylogenetically ancient means that....

it was the first developed part of the brain (in terms of evolution)

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The 4 parts to the hindbrain are...

Pons Medulla Reticular Formation Cerbellum

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Medulla

an extension of the spinal cord into the skull that coordinates heart rate, circulation and respiration vital to survive -> damage can cause heart and lungs to stop

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The term "brain stem dead" means....

There has been damage to the medulla

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Reticular Formation

regulates sleep/wake cycle & arousal levels

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cerebellum

controls fine motor skills

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Pons

relays information from the cerebellum to the rest of the brain

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Midbrain

Important to coordinate the basic functions related to perception and action

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Tectum

spatial orienting to an environment

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In the tectum, the SUPERIOR colliculi is responsible for...

visual orientation

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In the tectum, the INFERIOR colliculi is responsible for...

auditory orientation

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Tegmentum

movement, arousal and pleasure seeking

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Substantia Nigra

part of tegmentum high level of dopamine can give it a dark colour plae colour -> parkinsons

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Forebrain

highest level of the brain - both literally and figuratively split into the cerebral cortex and the subcortial structures

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Cerebral cortex

outermost layer of the brain - visible to the naked eye and split into two hemispheres

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Subcortial structures

areas of the forebrain housed under the cerebral cortex near the very centre of the brain

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Basal Ganglia

plans initiation of intentional movements

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Thalamus

relays and filters information from the senses to the cortex (except smell)

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