pulmonary

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108 Terms

1
  1. nose function

humidify air and purify air that comes into our respiratory tract

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2
  1. pharynx =

back of the throat, common passageway for BOTH air and food

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3
  1. larynx =

"voice box"

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4

3 structures of the larynx:

  1. glottis

  2. epiglottis

  3. vocal cords

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5

glottis=

flap that closes when we swallow to prevent food from entering airway

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6

epiglottis=

flap that closes when we swallow to prevent food from entering airway

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7

when glottis or epiglottis don't close properly what happens?

food goes down airway into lungs

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8

what is it called when food goes down airway to lungs?

aspiration

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9

aspiration leads to

inflammation --> pneumonia

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10

what is the important function of the larynx?

generates an effective cough

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11

vocal cords=

generate voice production

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12
  1. trachea =

-made of cricoid cartilage =firm and hard --> so it doesn't collapse when change pressures in the cavity

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13

what cartilage is the trachea made of?

cricoid cartilage

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14

where is the trachea anatomically?

ventral / front of the esophagus (esophagus is posterior to the trachea)

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15

why do we tilt the head back in CPR?

-opens the trachea in the front of the esophagus= opens airway -closes the esophagus air goes into airway not stomach

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16

why do we chin tuck when feeding?

-closes trachea = closes airway so food doesn't go down -opens esophagus = opens esophagus for food to enter GI tract

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17

The point where the trachea divides into branches=

carina

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18

what happens when you tickle the carina?

cough!

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19

The carina separates the _____ from each other.

main stem bronchiis -right and left

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20

main stem bronchiis fan out/arborize into

secondary, tertiary, etc. (smaller bronchi)

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21

where do the left and right main stem bronchiis go to?

left and right lungs

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22

terminal aspect of the bronchiis =

alveoli

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23

alveoli =

"functional unit of the lung" "respiratory unit of the lung"

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24

Why is the alveolus considered as the functional unit of the lungs?

where gas exchange occurs!

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25

cili =

hair-like particles throughout the airway, constantly moving or flapping to catch foreign particles that enter the airway

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26

goblet cells =

produce mucous, in the lining of the airway by capturing and engulfing particles

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27

what is the term for engulfing foreign particles?

phagocytosis

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28

how do goblet cells make mucous? / why?

mix foreign particles engulfed + with chemicals released by the cells --> to make mucous --> to leave the airway

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29

all the aveolis make up =

lungs!

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30

the right lung has __ lobes

3 (upper, middle, lower)

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31

the left lung has __ lobes

2 (upper and lower)

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32

T/F there can be weird breathing sounds from the Left middle lobe of lung?

FALSE no left middle lobe

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33

2 major functions of the pulmonary system=

  1. ventilation

  2. Respiration

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34

ventilation =

breathing

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35

what happens in ventilation?

O2 into lungs, CO2 out of lungs

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36

why do we need O2 to get into lungs? / function of O2

to make energy! @ level of peripheral muscles

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37

processes of ventilation=

  1. inspiration

  2. expiration

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38

Inspiration is a ______ process

active ALWAYS

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39

what does active process mean for inhalation?

requires contraction of muscles

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40

Primary muscles of inspiration @ rest

  1. diaphragm

  2. external intercostals

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41

diaphragm =

-arched, domed, high in the thorax -divides thoracic cavity from abdominal cavity

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42

When the diaphragm contracts

the central tendon of the diaphragm will PULL diaphragm DOWN

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43

diaphragm gets moved DOWN -->

protrudes abdominal wall

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44

when the diaphragm protrudes abdominal wall / why does it get pulled DOWN =

increases volume of thoracic cavity

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45

the diaphragm contracts --> increases volume of the thoracic cavity from a ___ and __ and __ perspective

-cephalocaudal (superior inferior) -anterior-posterior -lateral

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46

external intercostals =

-muscles b/t ribs moves ribs outward like bucket handle during inspiration

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47

How does inspiration occur?

  1. muscles contract= increases volume of the thoracic cavity decreases pressure in pressure of the thoracic cavity

  2. air gets pushed into the lungs to increase the pressure

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48

Boyle's Law

pressure is inversely proportional to volume in a closed space

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49

muscles contract in inhalation -->

increases volume of thoracic cavity --> decreases pressure in thoracic cavity

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50

when we increase volume in the thoracic cavity when diaphragm and external intercostals contract we create a pressure that =

"sub - atmospheric pressure" = "negative pressure"

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51

atmospheric pressure =

760

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52

because we have negative pressure -->

air gets pulled into lungs to normalize pressure

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53

What do ventilators do?

pushes positive pressure into the lungs (>760) (to replace muscle action)

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54

what happens when positive pressure from ventilator is too much?

damages alveoli/lungs

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55

How do we deepen inspiration

accessory muscles

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56

accessory muscles =

-scalenes -sternocleidomastoid (side bends and rotates neck to other side)

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57

accessory muscles do what?

elevate upper 2 ribs --> increases volume of thoracic cavity

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58

expiration is a ___ process

predominately passive (not always an active process)

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59

passive expiration @ rest :

because recoil of lungs

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60

Why does lung recoil occur?

b/c it is elastic when it expands it wants to recoil!

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61

passive expiration occurs because of ____

the elastic recoil of the lungs

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62

what does smoking damage?

elasticity of the lungs!

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63

smoking will cause problems with inhalation or exhalation?

exhalation can"t get air OUT of lungs

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64

obstructive lung disease

cannot get air OUT of lungs due to damage of elasticity from smoking!

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65

forced expiration is a ____ process

active

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66

primary muscles for forced expiration= (cough for i.e.)

  1. abdominals

  2. internal intercostals

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67

variable for objectively measure ventilation=

"minute ventilation"

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68

minute ventilation =

"Ve"

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69

minute ventilation equation=

volume of air you inspire or expire in one minute

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70

Ve=

tidal volume x respiratory rate

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71

Tidal Volume (TV) =

volume of air you inspire or expire per breathe (500mL)

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72

respiratory rate (RR)=

amount # of breaths per minute

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73

what would the Minute Ventilation (Ve) for a person with a Tidal Volume = 500 ml, and a Respiratory Rate = 10 breaths per minute ==

500 x 10 = 5000 ml/minute (5L/min)

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74

minute ventilation can be compared to :

Cardiac Output

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75

Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)

Amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled beyond normal tidal volume inhalation (3000mL)

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76

Inspiratory Capacity (IC) =

tidal volume (TV) + inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) gives an indication of capacity available for inspiration

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77

Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)

Amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled beyond normal tidal volume exhalation

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78

Residual Volume (RV)

volume of air left in the lungs after maximum expiration (can't blow out all your air) (to make sure we don't blow out all air)

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79

Functional Residual Capacity (FRC)

expiratory reserve volume (ERV) + residual volume (RV) -gives an indication of available capacity for forced expiration (that is why we don't include tidal volume in this equation)

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80

Vital Capacity (VC)

amount of air that can be maximally expired after a maximal inspiration

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81

vital capacity equation

IRV (inspiratory reserve volume) + ERV (expiratory reserve volume) + TV (tidal volume) = VC (vital capacity)

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82

vital capacity does not account for ...

Residual Volume -leaves out the extra air remaining in lungs (total lung capacity is all of them)

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83

Total Lung Capacity (TLC)

total capacity of the lung IRV + ERV + TV + RV = TOTAL!

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84

Respiration =

gas exchange

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85

where does respiration occur?

interface b/t alveolus + pulmonary capillary

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86

what type of diffusion is gas exchange?

simple diffusion

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87

partial pressure=

the concentration of each gas w/in certain environments, and the pressure it exerts w/in the environment based on their concentration -simple diffusion is dependent upon partial pressure of the gases in an environment

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88

what is in the pulmonary capillary during gas exchange?

deoxygenated blood coming from body

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89

partial pressure of oxygen in alveolus=

104 mmHg (higher) (oxygen is exerting a pressure of 104 mmHg)

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90

partial pressure of oxygen in deoxygenated blood in pulmonary capillary=

40 mmHg (lower)

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91

PO2 = 104 mmHg in alveolus and PO2 = 40 mmHg in blood will cause:

oxygen to move from HIGH --> LOW = from the alveolus --> blood

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92

partial pressure of CO2 in deoxygenated blood in pulmonary capillary=

45 mmHg (higher)

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93

partial pressure of CO2 in alveolus =

40 mmHg (lower)

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94

PCO2 = 45 mmHg in blood and PCO2 = 40 mmHg in alveolus will cause:

CO2 move from HIGH to LOW = from blood --> alveolus

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95

what happens if there is a problem with gas exchange?

changes acidity of your blood

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96

how is CO2 made?

  1. as a waste product from metabolic processes

  2. from acids

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97

an acid =

molecule with high H+

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98

lactic acid created in muscles while running goes where?

  1. spills into blood

  2. blood does not like acid

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99

what does blood do to get rid of acid

combines acid with bicarbonate ion (HCO3)

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100

What secretes bicarbonate ion?

kidney

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