bio test 2 (copy)

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plasma membrane

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167 Terms

1

plasma membrane

outer layer of cell

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2

cytoskeleton

internal protein network for support/transport

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3

cytosol

jelly like fluid in the cell

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4

cytoplasm

the space between the nucleus and plasma membrane

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5

organelles

perform cellular functions

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6

endomembrane system

organelles connected by membranes or exchange membrane bound transport vesicles

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7

organelles job

protein production pathway

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8

nucelus

contain DNA DNA is instructions to build proteins surrounded by nuclear envelope "double membrane"- contains pores

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9

nuclear envelope

membrane barrier that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm

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10

mRNA

messenger RNA "photocopy" of DNA instructions

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11

nucleolus job

produces ribosome subunits

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12

ribosome job

protein synthesis

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13

if ribosome is free in cytoplasm then

the proteins are used in the cytosol

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14

if ribosomes is bound to the rough ER then

the proteins are exported from the cell

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15

rough endoplasmic reticulum

membrane network lined with ribosomes

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16

rough ER main functions

modifies proteins eliminates faulty proteins produce membrane

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17

ER lumen

continuous space within nuclear envelope

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18

smooth endoplasmic reticulum

enzymes synthesize lipids - fatty acids, phospholipids, steroids, detoxify drugs metabolize carbs store Ca2+ = muscle contractions

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19

golgi complex

processes and distributes product from the ER produces polysaccarides layers of flat membrane sacs vessicles to and from the golgi - more golgi = more secretion

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20

lysosomes

membrane bound organelle that contains digestive enzymes

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21

autophagy

digesting dysfunctional organelles

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22

mitochondria

powerhouse of the cell produces ATP - adenosine triphosphate generates body heat

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23

chloroplasts

captures suns energy

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24

endosymbiosis meaning

inside-together-life

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25

endosymbiosis in mitochondria and chloroplasts

both have 2 membranes both have DNA - circular shape both have their own ribosomes

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26

microfillaments

cell shape, movement, muscle contraction

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27

intermediate fillaments

cell shape, organelle anchoring

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28

microtubules

chromosome and organelle movement flagella and cilia

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29

plants vs animals

plants lack lysosomes plants have -cell walls -central vacuole -chloroplasts

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30

cell wall

provides structure and support

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31

central vacuole

stores h2o, pigments, and waste

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32

plant cell junctions

plasmodesmata channels connecting plant cells helps with diffusion of molecules in cytoplasm

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33

animal cell junctions

gap junctions similar to plasmodemata found in heart and animal embryonic stage

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34

tight conjunctions

leakproof sheet line digestive tract

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35

desmosomes

anchoring junctions strong connection in stressed tissue skin and heart muscle

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36

cell membranes

boundary between cell interior and membrane enables. internal regulation- char. of life membranes are both flexible and stable

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37

all cells have external plasma membrane

but eukaryotes have internal as well

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38

membranes have a

phospholipid bilayer

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39

hydrophillic head

react well with h2o in cell

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40

hydrophobic tail

keep stability in the cell

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41

cholesterol

helps keep membranes more fluid @ cool temps less fluid @ warm temps

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42

membranes are

selectively permeable

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43

selective permeability is

when some substances can cross more easily than others

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44

hydrophobic molec pass through

non-polar membranes

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45

hydrophillic molec pass through

polar membranes

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46

fluid mosaic model

knowt flashcard image
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47

integral membrane proteins

pass into or through hydrophobic region of the membrane

<p>pass into or through hydrophobic region of the membrane</p>
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48

peripheral membrane proteins

attach to the outside of the membrane

<p>attach to the outside of the membrane</p>
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49

membrane protein functions

transport enzymes, cell communication, physical attachment

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50

glycoproteins made of

carb + protein

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51

glycolipid and glycoprotein functions

used in cell identification immunity (self vs non self) embryonic cell sorting

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52

passive transport

not requiring cellular energy

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53

diffusion

passive transport movement from high concentration to low concentration all molec are in constant mostion each molec moves independently from other molec

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54

factors that influence diffusion rate

size of molecule/ membrane the concentration gradient

  • larger difference in gradient = faster temperature

  • warmer = faster elec. or pressure gradients

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55

facilitated diffusion

passive transport movement aided by membrane proteins with a channel or carrier

<p>passive transport movement aided by membrane proteins with a channel or carrier</p>
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56

what needs facilitated diffusion

larger molec, polar molec, charged molec

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57

aquaporin

facilitated protein for H2O needed bc water is polar

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58

facilitated proteins have

specific shape for each substance ex enzymes

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59

osmosis

movement of free H2O molec from low solute concentration to high across a semi permeable membrane

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60

isotonic

same concentration on each side no net movement on each side of cell but flow in and out

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61

hypotonic

lower concentration

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62

hypertonic

higher concentration

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63

cells ____ to maintain balance

osmoregulate

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64

animal- lysed

exploded hypotonic

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65

animal- plasmolysed

shrivled hypertonic

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66

plant- flacid

limp hypertonic

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67

plant- turgid

firm hypotonic ideal for plant doesnt explode due to cell wall

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68

____ is ideal for animal cell

isotonic

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69

active transport

cell expends energy for transport up/ against concentration gradient driven by ATP Na+ and K+ pump inside of cell has slight negative charge

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70

cotransport

active transport transport of diff solutes through common protein

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71

exocytosis

exit cell

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72

endocytosis

enter cell

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73

endocytosis and exocytosis functions

fuse with plasma membrane to transport larger molec

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74

phagocytosis

cell eating

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75

pinocytosis

cell drinking

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76

receptor-mediated endocytosis

is a process by which cells absorb metabolites, hormones, proteins – and in some cases viruses – by the inward budding of the plasma membrane

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77

ligand

molec that binds to the receptor

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78

size of plasma membrane

8nm

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79

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

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80

genome

complete set of an organisms genetic information

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81

gene

a segment of DNA that is the coding for polypeptides sequence of amino acids proteins > 1 polypeptide

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82

humans have ___ genes

25,000

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83

there is a ____ copy of genes in almost every cell

full copy

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84

what is DNA's monomer

nucleotides

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85

DNA structure

5 carbon sugar phosphate group nitrogenous base = rungs

sugar phosphate backbone held with H bonds

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86

DNA has a _____ shape

double helix

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87

Purines

adenine and guanine 2 ring structure

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88

pyramidines

cytosine, thymine, uracil in RNA 1 ring structure

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89

A pairs with

T

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90

G pairs with

C/U

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91

differences between DNA and RNA

DNA

  • double strand

  • deoxyribose = H, no oxygen

  • thymine RNA

  • single strand

  • ribose = OH

  • uracil

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92

deoxyribose

5 carbon sugar 1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 1' to nitrogenous base 5' to phosphate group 3' to next nucleotide phosphate

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93

there are ____ bonds within a nucleotide

covalent

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94

there are ____ bonds between nitrogenous bases

hydrogen

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95

what is semiconservative replication

when the parent strand is conserved and acts as a template for the daughter strand

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96

how many origins of replication do prokaryotes have

one

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97

what shape are prokaryotes DNA

circular

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98

how many origins of replication are there for eukaryotes

multiple

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99

what shape is a eukaryotes DNA

linear

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100

helicase function

unwinds DNA

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