ZOOLONE Module 11-16 (Long Exam 3)

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Diffusion in small or thin animals

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Cardiovascular system (& Lymphatic System), Respiratory System, Urinary System, Reproductive System, Nervous System, & Endocrine System

396 Terms

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Diffusion in small or thin animals

cells can exchange materials directly with the surrounding medium

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Diffusion in most animals

cells exchange materials with the environment via a fluid-filled circulatory system

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Gastrovascular Cavity

cavity that:

  • functions in both digestion & distribution of substances throughout the body

  • body well is only 2 cells thick

  • some cnidarians and flatworms

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Circulatory System

organ system:

  • has circulatory fluid, interconnecting vessels, & muscular pump (heart)

  • 2 types: open or closed

  • may vary in number of circuits in the body

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Open Circulatory System

type of circulatory system:

  • insects, arthropods, & some molluscs

  • NO blood vessels

  • contains hemolymph

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hemolymph

  • circulatory fluid that bathes the organs directly

  • instead of blood

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Closed Circulatory System

type of circulatory system:

  • annelids, vertebrates, & cephalopods

  • contains blood that is confined to vessels & distinct from the interstitial fluid

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Cardiovascular System

organ system:

  • closed circulatory system of humans & other vertebrates

  • has 3 main types of blood vessels

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3 main types of blood vessels

artery, vein, & capillary

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artery

type of blood vessel:

  • blood away from heart

  • branch to arterioles

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vein

type of blood vessel:

  • blood back to the heart

  • branch from venule

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capillary

type of blood vessel:

  • network of vessels

  • site of chemical exchange between blood and interstitial fluid

  • connect arteries and veins

  • exchange of oxygen and CO2

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2 Types of Circulation

Single Circulation & Double Circulation

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Single Circulation

type of circulation:

  • bony fishes, rays, and sharks

  • with a 2-chambered heart

  • blood leaving the heart passes through 2 capillary beds before returning

  • contains 2 types of circuits

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2 types of circuits in Single Circulation

Gill capillaries & Body capillaries

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Double Circulation

type of circulation:

  • amphibians, reptiles, & mammals

  • oxygen-poor & oxygen-rich blood are pumped separately from the right & left sides of the heart

  • NO mixture of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood

  • maintains HIGHER blood pressure in the organs

  • contains 2 types of circuits

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2 types of circuits in Double Circulation

pulmocutaneous/pulmonary circuit & systemic circuit

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pulmocutaneous circuit

type of circuit in Double Circulation:

  • in frogs

  • blood will pass through skin & lungs to get oxygen

  • enter heart to pump out oxygenated blood to the systemic circuit

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systemic circuit

type of circuit in Double Circulation:

  • exchange of gases in capillaries

  • deoxygenated blood enter vein back to the heart

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pulmonary circuit

type of circuit in Double Circulation:

  • reptiles & mammals

  • oxygen-poor blood flows through the ___ to pick up oxygen through the lungs

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3 heart chambers in the frog

right atrium, ventricle, & left atrium

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blood flow of frog

RA → V → PCC → LA → V → SC → RA

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Evolutionary Variation in Double Circulation

  • some vertebrates (amphibians and many reptiles) with double circulation are intermittent breathers

  • different blood flow & number of heart chambers among animals

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blood flow of mammals

RV → pulmonary artery → lungs → pulmonary vein → LA → LV → aorta → body tissues → capillaries → superior/inferior vena cava → RA → RV

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Mammalian Heart

  • enclosed in pericardium

  • 4-chambered heart (2 atria, 2 ventricles)

  • contains valves

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atrium

heart chamber:

  • 2 in both amphibians & mammals

  • relatively thin walls

  • collection chambers for blood returning to the heart

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ventricle

heart chamber:

  • thicker walls

  • contract much more forcefully

  • chamber for blood leaving the heart

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valves

part of mammalian heart:

  • prevent backflow of blood

  • 2 types: atrioventricular & semilunar

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atrioventricular valve

type of valve:

  • tricuspid valve & bicuspid valve

  • one on each side; between the atrium & ventricle

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tricuspid valve

atrioventricular valve between RA & RV

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bicuspid valve

atrioventricular valve aka "mitral valve" between LA & LV

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semilunar valves

type of valve:

pulmonary& aortic ___ valves

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pulmonary semilunar valve

semilunar valve between RV & pulmonary artery

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aortic semilunar valves

semilunar valve aka "aortic valve" between LV & aorta

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Cardiac Cycle

2 phases: systole & diastole

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systole

contraction or pumping phase in the cardiac cycle

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diastole

relaxation or filling phase in the cardiac cycle

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heart rate

  • pulse

  • number of beats per minute

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heart murmur

backflow of blood through a defective valve

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autorhythmic

  • rhythm of the heart

  • can contract w/o the help of signals from the nervous system

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sinoatrial node

node in the heart:

  • pacemaker

  • sets the rate and timing at the which the cardiac muscle cells contract

  • found in RA

  • impulses go down to the atrioventricular (AV) node

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electrocardiogram

  • recording of the impulses that travel during the cardiac cycle

  • ECG / EKG

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Blood

connective tissue consisting of several kinds of cells suspended in a liquid matrix called plasma

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Plasma

component of blood:

  • contains inorganic salts as dissolved ions

  • contains plasma proteins

  • also contains water & substances transported by blood

  • 55% of blood

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blood serum

component of plasma:

  • plasma WITHOUT the proteins

  • obtained from centrifugation

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electrolytes

another term for inorganic salts in plasma

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plasma protein

component of plasma:

  • influence blood pH & help maintain osmotic balance between blood & interstitial fluid

  • some function in lipid transport, immunity, & blood clotting

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Cellular Elements

component of blood:

  • includes: Red blood cells, white blood cells, & platelets

  • 45% of blood

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red blood cell

Cellular Element in the blood:

  • erythrocytes

  • transport oxygen

  • contain hemoglobin

  • do NOT have nuclei & mitochondria

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hemoglobin

  • iron-containing protein that transports the oxygen

  • each molecule binds to 4 molecules of oxygen

  • present in red blood cells

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white blood cells

Cellular Element in the blood:

  • leukocytes

  • function in defense either phagocytizing bacteria & debris or by mounting immune responses against foreign substances

  • found both inside & outside of the circulatory system

  • has 2 types

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2 types of white blood cells

granulocytes & agranulocytes

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3 types of granulocytes

basophil, eosinophil, & neutrophils

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basophil

type of granulocytes:

release histamine

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eosinophil

type of granulocytes:

  • attack parasitic worm

  • contain antihistamine

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neutrophil

type of granulocytes:

  • responds to site of infection

  • target bacteria

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2 types of agranulocytes

lymphocyte & monocyte

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lymphocyte

type of agranulocytes:

immune response in the body

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monocyte

type of agranulocytes:

turn into macrophages, leave blood circulation, then turn into phagocytes

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platelet

Cellular Element in the blood:

  • thrombocytes

  • cell fragments that are involved in clotting

  • formed in the bone marrow

  • release thromboplastin and the other clotting factors

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coagulation

formation of a solid clot from liquid blood

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inactive fibrinogen

converts into fibrin after a cascade of complex reactions

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thrombus

  • blood clot formed within a blood vessel

  • can block blood flow

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Lymphatic System

organ system:

  • located along lymph vessels

  • plays a major role in the body’s defenses

  • for production, maintenance, and distribution of lymphocytes

  • transport fat molecules from small intestines

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thymus gland & bone marrow

body parts besides lymphatic system that are for production, maintenance, and distribution of lymphocytes

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Gas Exchange

supplies oxygen for cellular respiration and disposes CO2

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Partial Pressure

  • pressure exerted by particular gas in a mixture of gases

  • apply to gases dissolved in liquids such as water

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air or water

Respiratory Media

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less oxygen

amount of oxygen available in water than in air

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respiratory surfaces

  • large, moist surfaces for exchange of gases between their cells and the respiratory medium

  • gas exchange in here takes place by diffusion

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ventilation

moves the respiratory medium over the respiratory surface

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skin, gills, trachea, and lungs

examples of respiratory surfaces

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gills

example of respiratory surface:

  • outfoldings of the body that create a large surface area for gas exchange

  • aquatic animals use this for ventilation

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countercurrent exchange system

  • system that fish use with their gills

  • blood flows in the OPPOSITE direction to water passing over the gills

  • blood is ALWAYS LESS saturated with oxygen than the water it meets

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tracheal system

example of respiratory surface:

  • found in insects

  • network of branching tubes throughout the body

  • tubes supply oxygen directly to the body cells

  • respiratory and circulatory systems are separate

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lungs

example of respiratory surface:

  • found in humans and other mammals

  • infolding of the body surface

  • circulatory system transports gases between the ___ and the rest of the body

  • size and complexity correlate with an animal’s metabolic rate

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Mammalian Respiratory System

system of branching ducts coveys air to the lungs

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alveoli

  • air sacs at the tips of the bronchioles

  • sites of gas exchange

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moist film of the epithelium

oxygen diffuses through the ___ and into capillaries

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surfactants

  • secretion that coats the surface of the alveoli

  • keeps respiratory system moist

  • if not, causes friction and body problems

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Breathing

  • process that ventilates the lungs

  • alternate inhalation and exhalation of air

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Amphibian breathing

breathing of animal:

  • ventilates its lungs by positive pressure (forces air down the trachea)

  • air does NOT go straight to lungs

  • air goes to buccal cavity pouch first

  • has 4 steps

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positive pressure

pressure when animal forces air down the trachea

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Avian Breathing

breathing of animal:

  • have 8-9 air sacs that keep air flowing through lungs

  • air flow in 1 direction

  • requires 2 cycles of inhalation and exhalation

  • ventilation is highly efficient

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mouth, posterior air sacs, lungs, anterior air sacs, & mouth

flow of avian breathing

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Mammal Breathing

breathing of animal:

ventilate their lungs by negative pressure breathing

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negative pressure

pressure when animal pulls air into the lungs

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lung volume increases

what happens as the rib muscles and diaphragm contract

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spirometer

instrument to measure breathing and know efficiency of lungs

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tidal volume

volume of air inhaled with each breath

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vital capacity

maximum tidal volume

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residual volume

air in the lungs after exhalation

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medulla oblongata

  • breathing control center in our brain

  • regulates and depth of breathing in response to pH changes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

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decrease in pH

pH level in the cerebrospinal fluid when there are rising levels of CO2 in blood

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negative feedback mechanism in respiration

rising levels of CO2 in blood = decrease in pH → signals from medulla increase rate & depth of ventilation in lungs → CO2 level falls & pH rises (becomes basic)

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low partial pressure of oxygen and high partial pressure of CO2

partial pressures of oxygen & CO2 in blood arriving in the lungs relative to air in alveoli

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Respiratory Pigments

  • proteins that transport oxygen

  • greatly increase the amount of oxygen that blood can carry

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hemocyanin with copper

respiratory pigment:

  • in arthropods and many molluscs

  • act as oxygen-binding component

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hemoglobin

respiratory pigment:

  • in most vertebrates and some invertebrates

  • inside the erythrocytes

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1:4

ratio of molecules of hemoglobin and oxygen it can carry

hint: 1 molecule for each iron-containing heme group

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