ap hg sem 1 final

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5 Themes of Geography

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104 Terms

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5 Themes of Geography

location, space, scale, place, and pattern

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spatial perspective

the common bond that causes us to notice patterns of both natural and human environment, distributions of people, and locations of all kinds of objects

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3

spatial organization

the location of people, places, and events, and the connections among landscapes

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4

cartography

the art and science of map-making

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5

Mercator Projection

invented by Gerardus Mercator in 1569; intended to aid ship navigation across the Atlantic between Europe and the Americas. Makes direction accurate, but distorts size, especially near the Poles

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Robinson Projection

curves the Poles inward to fix distortions of the Mercator projection, but stretches them into long lines. Attempts to balance distortions in shape, size, distance and direction

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Peter's Projection

invented by Arno Peters in 1974, and focuses on making land masses equal in area, therefore distorting shape

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grid pattern

rectangular system of land survey, adopted universally by the Ordinance of 1785

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9

scale

size of unit studied, on a scale of small to large in terms of local, regional, or global scale

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10

map scale

the mathematical relationship between size of an area on a map and its actual size on earth

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11

GIS

Geographic Information System; a computer system that captures, stores, analyzes and displays geography data, combined in layers

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12

GPS

Global Positioning System; technology that uses a series of satellites, tracking stations and receivers to determine precise absolute locations on earth

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13

demography

description of people or populations

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14

population density

the number of people that live in a given area of land

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15

physiological density

measures the pressure people may place on the land to produce a sustainable amount of food

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arithmetic density

total number of people divided by total land area

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overpopulation

the circumstance of too many people for the land to support

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18

carrying capacity

the number of people an area can support on a sustained basis

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19

population pyramids

represent a population's age and sex composition

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rate of natural increase

a percentage of population growth

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Total Fertility Rate

the average number of children a woman is expected to have in her lifetime

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22

Agricultural Revolution

the domestication of plants and animals, started in the Fertile Crescent around 1000 BCE

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23

Industrial Revolution

a period starting in the late eighteenth century in Britain that saw the introduction of mass production

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Green Revolution

the introduction of high-yielding crops and chemical fertilizers and pesticides into tradition Asian agricultural systems

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doubling rate

the length of time needed to double a population

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26

crude birth rate

the number of births in a given population per one thousand people

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crude death rate

the number of deaths in a given population per one thousand people

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28

Zero Population Growth

a stabilized population, created when an average of only two children per couple survive to adulthood

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exponential growth rate

a growth rate illustrated by a series of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32

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linear growth rate

a growth rate illustrated by a series of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

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Neo-Malthusians

Adhere to Thomas Malthus' theory that populations increase too rapidly for food supplies to sustain

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infant mortality rate

the number of deaths among infants younger than one year of age in a population

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life expectancy

the average number of years a child can expect to live

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34

Demographic Transition Model; Stage 1

Low growth; high birth and death rates with a natural increase close to 0, associated with preindustrial societies

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Demographic Transition Model; Stage 2

High growth; birth and death rates both increase, associated with developing societies

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Demographic Transition Model; Stage 3

Moderate growth; fertility rates begin to fall, associated with a mature industrial society

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Demographic Transition Model; Stage 4

Low Growth; birth rates continue to fall, accompanied by steady death rates, associated with postindustrial societies

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38

Emigration

migration away from an area

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39

Immigration

migration to an area

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40

distance decay

the decline of an activity or function with increasing distance from the point of origin

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41

intervening opportunities

the act of finding opportunities to settle before reaching an original destination

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42

gravity model

the measure of interaction amongst places

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43

intervening obstacles

physical features that halt or slow migration

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44

Push factor

a motivation for emigration

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Pull factor

a motivation for immigration

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Types of push and pull factors

economic (employment), cultural (slavery, refugee situations, politics, government control), and environmental (climate, elevations, seacoasts and disease)

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U.S. Immigration Patterns

  1. Initial settlement of the colonies between 1776-1840

  2. Emigration from Europe in the 19th and early 20th century

  3. Immigration since 1945

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48

activity space

area in which an individual moves about while carrying out day-to-day activities

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awareness space

an individual's knowledge of opportunity locations

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space-time prism

the set of all points that can be reached by an individual given a maximum possible speed from a starting point in space-time and an ending point in space-time

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Environmental determinism

the belief that physical environment actively shapes culture

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Possibilism

recognizes the importance of physical environment but states cultural heritage is just as important is shaping a culture/society

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Environmental Perceptionism

emphasizes human perception of environment rather than actuality of land, and the shaping of culture by perception

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Cultural determinism

states that human culture is more important than physical environment in shaping human actions

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non-material culture

the abstract concept of human values, behaviors, and beliefs

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material culture

culture illustrated by concrete human creations, called artifacts

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culture region

an area marked by a distinguishable culture unique to its region

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culture trait

a single attribute of a culture

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culture complex

common values, beliefs, behaviors and artifacts that make a group distinct from others in the area

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culture system

a group of interconnected culture complexes

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cultural hearth

an area where a civilization first began

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expansion diffusion

when an innovation or idea develops in a source area and remains strong there while spreading outward

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contagious diffusion

a type of expansion diffusion wherein almost all individuals and areas outward from the source region are affected

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hierarchical diffusion

a type of expansion diffusion wherein ideas and artifacts first spread between large places or prominent people and only later reach smaller groups or less prominent people

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stimulus diffusion

a type of expansion diffusion wherein a basic idea, though not the trait itself, stimulates imitative behavior

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relocation diffusion

diffusion that occurs when individual people or populations physically carry an innovation or idea from a source area to a new one

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migrant diffusion

a type of relocation diffusion wherein the spread of outward traits is slow enough that they weaken the area of origin by the time they reach other areas

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acculturation

occurs when a less dominant culture adopts traits of a more influential culture

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assimilation

when a culture completely absorbs a less dominant one

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transculturation

an equal exchange of cultural traits

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71

ethnocentrism

the practice of judging another culture by the standards of one's own culture

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cultural relativism

the practice of evaluating a culture by its own standards

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syncretism

a fusion of old and new cultures, and an explanation of how and why cultural changes occur

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language families

related tongues that share a common ancestor

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dialects

variant forms of language where mutual comprehension is possible

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pidgin language

characterized by a very small vocabulary derived from languages of the groups in contact

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creole language

occurs when a pidgin becomes the first language of a group of speakers

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slang

words and phrases not part of a standard, recognized vocabulary for a given language but are nonetheless understood and used by some or most of its speakers

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lingua franca

a language of communication and commerce spoken across a wide language where it is not a mother language

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80

language hotspots

places home to the most unique, misunderstood, or endangered languages

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toponym

a place name

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82

isogloss

indicates the spatial borders of individual words and pronunciations

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83

proselytizing religion

also called a "universalizing religion"; a religion that attempts to be global in its appeal to all people

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84

the Three Great Monotheistic Religions

Judaism, Islam and Christianity

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85

Roman Catholicism

The largest branch of Chrisitanity, which includes 50% of all Christians and large concentrations of followers in Latin America, French Canada, Central African, and Southern and Eastern Europe

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Protestantism

The 2nd largest branch of Christianity, constituting 25% of all Christians with concentrations in North America, Northern Europe, Britain, South Africa and Australia

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87

Eastern Orthodoxy

Final branch of Christianity, including 10% of all Christians and concentrated mostly in Eastern Europe and Russia

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88

Sunni

The dominant branch of Islam, with 83% of all Muslims adhering to the belief that the successor of Muhmmad should be chosen in agreement amongst religious leaders

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Shi'ite

The lesser branch of Islam (16%), who believe that Muhammad's successor should be a blood relative

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90

folk culture

traditionally practiced by small, homogeneous groups living in isolated areas

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91

popular culture

found in large, heterogeneous societies bonded by a common culture despite the many difference among people that share it

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92

territoritality

efforts to control pieces of the earth's surface for political or social ends

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93

physical boundary

often natural feautures, such as mountains, deserts, rivers, lakes and oceans that seperate nations

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94

culture boundary

set by an ethnic difference between groups, especially in a linguistic or religious aspect

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95

sovereignty

the ability of a state to carry out actions or policies within its boundaries independently from interface either on the outside or inside

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96

types of boundary disputes

  1. Positional: regarding location of the border

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  1. Territorial: regarding ownership of a region near the border

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98
  1. Allocation: regarding natural resources

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  1. Functional: regarding border policies

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100

primate city

a capital city that is unrivaled in terms of size or influence by another city within a state

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