PSY2042 Social Psychology

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cross-cultural products

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Psychology

128 Terms

1

cross-cultural products

Cultural products such as advertisements illustrate cross-cultural differences in views of the self and others. Eastern countries more likely to show fitting in with group.

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cultural products

Goods and services that include the arts (performing arts, visual arts, architecture), heritage conservation (museums, galleries, libraries), the cultural industries (written media, broadcasting, film, recording), and festivals.

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3

Social psychology

The scientific study of how people think about, influence and relate to one another, the way people's thoughts, feelings and behaviours are influenced by the real or imagined presence of people

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4

Social influence

The effect that the words, actions or mere presence of other people have on our thoughts, feelings, attitudes or behaviours

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5

Personality pscyhology

focuses on individual differences

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6

Fundamental attribution error

The tendency to explain our own and other person's behaviour entirely in terms of personality traits

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7

What happens when we underestimate the power of social influence?

Gain a feeling of false security Increases personal vulnerability Lowering our guard

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8

What happens when we fail to appreciate the power of the situation

Oversimplify complex situations Decrease understanding of the true causes Blaming victim when people are overpowered by social forces

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9

Social cognition motive

Trying to gain accurate understandings so we can make effective judgements and decisions

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10

Social cognition

how people think about themselves and the social world - how people select, interpret, remember and use social information to make judgements and decisions

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11

Automatic thinking

Thought that is unconscious, unintentional, involuntary and effortless

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12

How do schemas affect automatic thinking?

Schemas are mental structures use to organise the social world around themes or subjects, helps us to organise and interpret new situations.

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13

What are the types of automatic thinking?

Automatic goal pursuit (priming with religious words --> religious) Automatic decision making (choosing the best apartment) Automatic thinking and metaphors (smelling something clean --> more trusting stranger) Judgemental heuristics - mental shortcuts (mental shortcuts people use to make judgements quickly and efficiently)

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14

Stereotypes

cluster of characteristics that are attributed to members of a specific social group or category

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15

types of schemas

Person schema (behave certain way), content-free schema (making assumptions about certain things that don't actually exist), self schema (how we view ourselves), script schema (what happens in a class), role schema

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16

How do we determine which schema to use?

Accessibility - schemas are at the forefront of people's minds Priming - the effect of recent experiences increases the accessibility of a schema

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17

How do we form impressions of others?

Stereotypes, social schemas, self-fulfilling prophecy

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18

Korsakov syndrome

People with this disorder lose the ability to form new memories and must approach every situation as if they were encountering it for the first time

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19

Self-fulfilling prophecy

where people have an expectation about what another person is like, influencing how they act towards that person

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20

cognitive shortcuts

Representative heuristics - estimating the likelihood of an event comparing it to an existing prototype that already exists Availability heuristics - relies on immediate examples that comes to a person's mind. Anchoring - adjusting beliefs based off an initial idea All based on other people and ourselves.

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21

schemas

cognitive structures we use to organize our knowledge of the social world.

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22

social-cognitive learning

we learn to aggress by observing and imitating others.

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23

belief perserverance

tendency to cling to one's initial belief even after receiving new information that contradicts or disconfirms the basis of that belief.

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24

Controlled thinking

thinking that is conscious, intentional, voluntary and effortful

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25

Conformity

change in one's behaviour due to the real or imagined influence of other people

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26

Why do people conform?

Confusing or unusual situation Behaviour of people around us Don't want to be ridiculed or punished Acceptance by a group

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27

What is informational social influence?

Conforming because we see others as a source of information to guide our behaviour

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28

When will people conform to informational social influence?

Ambiguous situation Crisis situation When other people are experts

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29

How does normative social influence motivate people to conform?

Social norms - implicit or explicit rules a group has Normative social influence - going along with what other people do in order to be liked and accepted

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30

How can people use their knowledge of social influence to influence others?

Injunctive norms - people's perception of what behaviours are approved and disapproved by others Descriptive norms - people's perceptions of how people actually behave in given situations

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31

What are some examples of compliance techniques

Foot in the door Door in the face Propaganda

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32

Social perception

The study of how we form impressions of and make inferences about other people

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33

Nonverbal communication

how people communicate, intentionally or unintentionally, without words. encode -> decode

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34

emblem

Non-verbal gestures that have well understood definitions within a given culture

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35

Attribution theory

The way in which people explain the causes of their own and other people's behaviour

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36

internal attribution

the inference that a person is behaving in a certain way because of something about the person, such as attitude, character, or personality

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37

external attribution

The inference that a person is behaving a certain way because of something about the situation he or she is in; the assumption is that most people would respond the same way in that situation

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38

Self concept

the overall set of beliefs that people have about their personal attributes

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39

independent view of the self

a way of defining oneself in terms of one's own internal thoughts, feelings, and actions and not in terms of the thoughts, feelings, and actions of other people

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40

interdependent view of the self

a way of defining oneself through relationship to other people

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41

self-serving bias

internal factors for success, external for failure

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42

two-factor theory of emotion

experience physiological arousal, then seek appropriate explanation

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43

group polarisation

tendency of groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclinations of their members. persuasive arguments and social comparison

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44

realistic conflict theory

The idea that limited resources lead to conflict between groups and result in increased prejudice/ discrimination.

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45

steps to helping

  1. Noticing an event.

  2. Interpreting the event as an emergency.

  3. Assuming responsibility.

  4. Knowing appropriate form of assistance.

  5. Implementing decision to intervene.

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46

What are the functions of the self?

Self knowledge Self control Impression management Self-esteem

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47

introspection

The process whereby people look inward an examine their own thoughts, feelings and motives

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48

self-awareness theory

the idea that when people focus their attention on themselves, they evaluate and compare their behaviour to their internal standards and values

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49

Intrinsic motivation

Engage in activity because of enjoyment and interest

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50

Extrinsic motivation

Engage in an activity because of external reasons

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51

social comparison theory

The idea that we learn about our own abilities and attitudes by comparing ourselves to other people

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52

When do we engage in social comparison

No objective standard exists to measure against Uncertainty

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53

What is upward social comparison?

Comparing to people who are better on a particular ability, aspiring up

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54

What is downward social comparison?

comparing to people who are worse on a particular trait or ability, feeling better about yourself

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55

social tuning

the process whereby people adopt another person's attitudes

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56

self control

making choices about present and plans for the future. like muscle, practice helps, gets worn out

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57

How do we improve self control?

Believing willpower is an unlimited resource Prayer

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58

What is impression management?

Attempt by people to get others to see them as they want to be seen

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59

What is self handicapping?

creating obstacles to successful performance in order to have an excuse if failure occurs (ex. helping a friend instead of studying for a test)

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60

What are the types of self handicapping

Behavioural self-handicapping Reported self-handicapping

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61

behavioural self-handicapping

People act in ways that reduce the likelihood of success so that if they fail, they can blame it on obstacles rather than ability

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62

reported self-handicapping

rather than creating obstacles to success, people devise ready-made excuses in case they fail

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63

self-esteem

how you feel about yourself

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64

What is a group?

two or more people who interact and are interdependent in the sense that their needs and goals cause them to influence each other

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65

What are the benefits of a group?

Important source of information Aspect of identity Establishment of social norms and social roles

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66

What is group cohesiveness?

qualities of a group that bind members together and promote liking between members

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67

What are the benefits of group cohesiveness?

Stay in the group Participation Recruit new like-minded members

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68

social facilitation

People do better on simple tasks, and worse on complex tasks, when they are in the presence of others and their individual performance can be evaluated

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69

social loafing

People do worse on simpler tasks but better on complex tasks when they are in the presence of others and their individual performances cannot be evaluated

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70

deindividuation

loosening of normal constraints on behaviour when people can't be differentiated

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71

What are examples of deindividuation?

Mobs of soccer fans attacking one another Hysterical fans at rock concerts Lynching of African Americans

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72

Why does deindividuation lead to impulsive acts?

Makes people feel less accountable Increase obedience to group norms

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73

Why do some groups not work?

Finding out who the competent member is Competent member - hard to disagree with everyone Communication problems

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74

groupthink

a kind of thinking in which maintaining group cohesiveness and solidarity is more important than considering the facts in a realistic manner

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75

When does groupthink occur?

Highly cohesive Isolated from contrary options Directive leader

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76

What are some methods of avoiding groupthink?

Remain impartial Seek outside opinions Create subgroups Seek anonymous opinions

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77

transactional leaders

leaders who set clear, short-term goals and reward people who meet them

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78

transformational leaders

leaders who inspire followers to focus on common, long-term goals

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79

social dilemma

a conflict in which the most beneficial action for an individual will, if chosen by most people, have harmful effects on everyone

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80

negotiation

A form of communication between opposing sides in a conflict in which offers and counteroffers are made and a solution occurs only when both parties agree

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81

prosocial behaviour

The phenomenon of people helping each other with no thought of reward or compensation

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82

Why do people help?

Evolutionary psychology Reciprocity Norm

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83

altruism

the desire to help another person even if it involves a cost to the helper

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84

When will people help?

Immediate surroundings Urban overload hypothesis Residential mobility - community based

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85

How do we increase helping behaviour?

Increasing volunteerism Positive psychology Human virtues Increase skills and confidence

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86

prejudice

a hostile or negative attitude toward people in a distinguishable group, based solely on their membership in that group.

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87

What is prejudice based on?

Nationality Racial and ethnic identity Gender Sexual orientation Religion Appearance Physical state Weight

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88

What are the three components of prejudice?

Cognitive Affective Behavioural

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89

What is the cognitive component of prejudice?

Beliefs or thoughts that causes stereotypes

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90

What is the affective component of prejudice?

Emotion linked with attitude

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91

What is the behavioural component of prejudice?

Taking action --> discrimination

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92

normative conformity

The strong tendency to go along with the group in order to fulfill the group's expectations and gain acceptance

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93

blaming the victim

The tendency to blame individuals for their victimisation, is typically motivated by a desire to see the world as a fair place

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94

How do we reduce prejudice?

Information Disconfirming evidence Contact hypothesis

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95

contact hypothesis

the idea that prejudice will disappear if we just bring groups in contact with each other

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96

six conditions of contact

Mutual interdependence Common goal Equal status Friendly, informal setting Knowing multiple out-group members Social norms of equality

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97

attitudes

evaluations of people, objects, and ideas

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98

cognitively based attitude

An attitude that allows us to classify the pros and cons of an object so that we can quickly determine whether we want to have anything to do with it.

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99

affectively based attitude

An attitude based more on people's feelings and values than on their beliefs about the nature of an attitude object.

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100

What are positive attitudes?

Result in positive outcomes, focusing on the good in people and situations

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