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What happens to stereopsis with age?

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1

What happens to stereopsis with age?

decreases

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2

Stereoacuity thresholds typically become increasingly elevated beyond the age of ______________

50 years

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3

The amplitude of accommodation decreases ____________ with age.

linearly

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4

Convergence ability does what with age?

stays the same

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5

When there is a reduction in accommodation that is symptomatic, resulting in blur, the patient is said to have what condition?

presbyopia

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6

the ability to accommodate ___________ with age.

decreases

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7

Symptoms of Presbyopia are typically first noticed at what age?

mid 40s

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8

One factor that contributes to presbyopia is ___________________

decreased elasticity of the lens capsule

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9

When the ciliary muscle constricts, it releases tension on the lens _______ and capsule, allowing the lens to bulge anteriorly.

zonules

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10

Presbyopia can be treated with what kind of lenses?

Convex (plus) lenses that compensate for the loss of near diotropic power

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11

How does astigmatism change as a person ages?

increasing diotropic power in horizontal meridian

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12
  • a shift from WTR astig --> ATR astig

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13

How should older patients be educated by their eye doctor?

educate patients about:

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14

-expected changes over time in vision

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15

-the manner in which these changes can affect ADL

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16

-proper use of lighting

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17

Ocular media becomes less clear with age and causes what 2 things?

increasing light scatter

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18

reducing contrast

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19

Visual acuity is __________ important than contrast sensitivity in everyday activities

less

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20

Retinal illuminance decreases with age as _________________ decreases.

pupil size (miosis)

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21

T or F: Normal aging can lead to degraded visual function without ocular pathology

True

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22

The elderly tend to adopt a more ____________ response criterion in psychophysical measurements than younger observers.

conservative

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23

As people age, there is a ___________ in the rate of dark adaptation and an ________ in absolute threshold.

decrease in dark adaptation

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24

increase in absolute threshold

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25

Visual acuity ________ with normal aging.

decreases

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26

Spatial contrast sensitivity declines with age at what 2 spatial frequencies?

intermediate and high spatial frequencies

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27

How do visual fields change with age?

become smaller

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28

How does peripheral sensitivity change with age?

decreases with age

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29

Sensitivity to temporally modulated stimuli does what with age?

declines with age

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30

UFOV

useful field of view

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31

-test of visual attention that is a psychophysical assessment of visual function in elderly

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32

Older drivers have disproportionately more accidents and citations than ______________

middle age drivers

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33

The number of people older than 65 years increased by a factor of _____ between 1900 and 1997.

11

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34

The number of people older than 65 years old is expected to double again by 2030 to become __________________ people.

72 million

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35

The rate of growth in the population 85 years and older is

even greater than 65 and older

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36

In 2019, about 16.5% of American population is was 65 years or older; it is expected to reach ____% by 2050.

22%

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37

In 1950, only _____% of population was over 65 years.

8%

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38

Changes in visual function that occur with aging can be seconday to _________________, or can occur in the absence of disease in healthy eyes.

ocular disease

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39

How does vision development and change across lifespan?

infancy and childhood- rapidly enhance visual functions

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40

mid-adulthood: stable

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41

elderly: slow degradation

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42

What 3 things reduce contrast and retinal illuminance?

1.increased light scatter

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43
  1. increased absorption by ocular media

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44
  1. decreased pupil diameter (miosis)

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45

Overtime, what happens to the lens with old age?

-it becomes thicker and hardens such that accommodation is no longer possible

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46

-yellows and may develop opacities

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47

How do photoreceptors change with old age?

-gradual loss of photoreceptors

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48

-decrease in optical density of photopigments

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49

-less responsive to light

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50

What happens to foveal cone density with old age?

density decreases

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51

What happens to the visual pathways and cortex as someone ages?

cell loss and changes in neurotransmitters

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52

Dark adaptation changes how with old age?

increase in absolute threshold, decrease in rate of dark adaptation

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53

Resolution acuity changes how after 60 years of age?

decreases

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54

The spatial CSF _________ at intermediate and high spatial frequencies.

decreases

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55

How does temporal contrast sensitivity changes how with old age?

no change

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56

Visual fields become how with age?

smaller

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57

Normal aging can lead to degraded visual function that must be distinguished from the effects of _____________

pathology

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58

Ocular diseases and their associated vision losses are much more prevalent in ______________adults.

older

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59

Why is it sometimes hard to distinguish between normal aging and early pathology?

because the measurement variability increases with age, bc people age at different rates

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60

Any anatomical and physiological change observed in an older eye, if MINOR, may be considered to be due to _____________

normal aging

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61

The presence of some pigmentary mottling and a few drusen is common in the retina of ___________________

older individuals and could be considered a result of normal aging

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62

When presence of pigmentary mottling and drusen are more pronounced and accompanied with acuity loss, they are considered to be ________________-

age-related macular degeneration

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63

Activities of daily living

The basic activities a person usually accomplishes during a normal day, such as eating, dressing, and bathing.

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64

-it is important to ensure patients visual needs are met to perform these activities

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65

the ocular media becomes less clear with age, which causes what 2 things?

increased light scatter

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66

reduced contrast

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67

Most significant age-related changes occur in the crystalline lens, which include?

  1. increased diameter and thickness

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68
  1. Hardens

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69
  1. Increases in optical density, and accumulates more light absorbing pigmentation

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70

If the lens undergoes some noticeable opacification, it is an early sign of what?

cataracts

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71

As pigmentation in the crytalline lens increases, the absorption of light by the lens becomes _________________-

wavelength dependent

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72

The lens of the neonate's eye is _______________ to all visible wavelengths.

transparent

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73

In the older eye, absorption of light is greatest for what kind of light?

short-wavelength light (violet and blue)

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74

In the older eye, absorption is worse in what kind of wavelengths of light?

intermediate and short

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75

What produces progressive yellowing of crystalline lens throughout life?

absorption of short-wavelength light (blue and violet)

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76

By what time frame is the yellowing of the lens noticeable?

3rd decade of life

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77

Loss of short-wavelength sensitivity can have a dramatic impact on color vision and cause what type of defects?

blue-yellow (tritan)

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78

What anatomically can occur to the photoreceptors with age?

-loss of photoreceptors

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79

-reduction in photopigment density

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80

-misalignment or improper oritentation of cones outer segments

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81

-resting membrane potential may decrease

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82

-decrease in level of neurotransmitters

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83

Possible postreceptor mechanisms for age-related loss include reduced receptor pooling due to

-reduced convergence onto bipolar cells

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84

-ganglion cell loss

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85

-decreased response amplitude of neurons

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86

-decreased levels of retinal neurotransmitters

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87

-cortical cell loss

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88

-decrease in levels of cortical neurotransmitters

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89

Psychophysical measurements

tests that rely on an observer's subjective response of what is seen or not seen

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90

-many elderly are reluctant to say that they detect a target unless they are very sure

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91

Younger observers are much more likely to ______________ on a psychophysical visual test.

guess or push for a lower line; older individuals have to be pushed

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92

It is critical that older adults be ____________ to read a lower line on a visual acuity chart.

encouraged

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93

By using a forced-choice procedure, it is typically found that stimuli can be detected or discriminated at levels ______________- than the thresholds found by regular VA.

far lower

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94

Many early studies that reported an age-related decline in vision may have ___________ the amount of sensory loss due to age.

overestimated

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95

Transmission of light changes how with age?

decreases with age

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96

cataract causes what 2 things?

1.decreased vision

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97
  1. changes in refractive error

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98

Syneresis

vitreous liquifying ; causes reflections of light (patient may notice as floaters)

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99

Yellowing of the lens causes more light absorption of what kind of light?

short-wavelength light-->elderly have a harder time detecting blue/white light

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100

What type of color vision mistakes are elderly more likely to make?

Tritan (blue/yellow defects)

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