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false consensus effect

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1

false consensus effect

tendency for people to overestimate how much other people share their beliefs attitudes and behaviors

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2

because of the false consensus effect our goal in research is to

avoid casual observations use systematic approach instead

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3

what is research?

a critical process for asking and attempting to answer questions about the world

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4

ways of learning about behavior

custom and tradition intuition logical reasoning authority pseudoscience scientific approach- empiricism

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5

characteristics of intuition

gut feelings basic observation common sense accept info w/o skepticism

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6

limitations of intuition

assumes facts without finding proof not full picture no strong foundation of evidence

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7

logical reasoning uses the

problem solving method

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8

inductive reasoning is when you

develop generalizations from specific observations

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9

example of inductive reasoning

nurse observes anxious behavior children in one hospital conclusion that in general child's separation from parent is stressful

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10

deductive reasoning is when you

develop specific predictions from general principles

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11

deductive reasoning example

assume separation anxiety happens in general conclusion that children in local hospital whos parents leave will have 5x stress

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12

limitation of logical reasoning

validity of reasoning depends on accuracy of info used to create predictions

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13

learning by authority is when

turn to specialized sources leaders say it's the answer

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14

limitation of learning by authority

need to consider your source

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15

phrenology is an example of

pseudoscience

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16

phrenology claims to be able to

determine character and personality based on shape of head

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17

limitations of phrenology and pseudoscience

lack of evidence

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18

pseudoscience tends to

pick favorable evidence tends to be dogmatic and unyielding

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19

scientific method defintion

systematic empirical controlled critical examination of hypothetical propositions

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20

systematic means there is

a sense of order ID problem Collect evidence Analyze data Interpret findings

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21

empiricism is

knowledge must be based on observation

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22

falsifiability is when

research fails to provide support of an idea

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23

peer-review acts to

prevent poor quality research from becoming part of scientific literature

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24

steps of scientific method

develop question background research construct hypothesis develop method test hypothesis analyze data communicate results

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25

why does research matter?

understand and interpret new info improve clinical practice discover and validate scientific concepts

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26

benefits of research

improves legislation aids program development

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27

goals of behavioral research

description of behavior prediction of behavior determine causes explain behavior

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28

data + methods =

outcomes

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29

research process

research idea research design collecting data analyze data publication process

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30

non experimental research questions

descriptive correlational no intervention

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31

example of descriptive research question

what beverages do college students consume daily?

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32

example of correlational research question

what is the relationship between daily hours of studying and daily alcohol consumption?

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33

example of experimental research question

does a low carb diet compared to an isocaloric low fat diet result in greater weight loss among college students

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34

basic behavioral research acts to

examine nature of behavior increases knowledge

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35

applied behavioral research acts to

address issues and potential solutions puts knowledge into action

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36

experimental research designs

true experimental within subjects experimental quasi-experimental

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37

key uses of non-experimental design

describe co-occurence generate hypotheses compare two methods prediction

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38

descriptive research describes

a developmental change in people over time without changing the environment

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39

correlational research studies

the nature of existing relationships

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40

correlational coefficient is the

numerical index of strength of relationship

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41

epidemiological research is

non-experimental study of health and disease in population and incidence of disease

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42

example of epidemiological research

risk factors for heart disease 37% of adults report at least two of them

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43

limitations of non experimental research

never cause and effect third variable problem

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44

key features of true experimental design

true control group true random assignment groups statistically equal blind sample size

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45

pre-test/ post-test design example

effects of resistance exercise on elders with depression

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46

factorial design means there is

more than one independent variable

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47

factorial design example

effect of running vs walking on people with either low fat or normal diet

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48

within subjects design is when there is

one group of subjects subjects as their own control group

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49

advantages of within subjects design

fewer participants less money conditions identical because person is own control group

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50

disadvantages of within subjects design

fatigue effect carryover effect (order effect) practice effect

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51

disadvantages of within subjects design fixed by

crossover design with random order and wash out period

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52

quasi experimental design

no random assignment; uses pre existing or self selected groups one group post test only one group pre test post test

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53

why sampling

economical time efficient potentially more accurate

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54

goal of study is to

generalization

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55

goal of sampling is to

represent population

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56

our class vs. the uconn population

only a handful of majors ratio of men vs women age/ class standing ratio of commuter vs. residential

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57

steps in sampling process

ID target population ID accessible population Choose sampling procedure define inclusion and exclusion criteria

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58

inclusion criteria is the

main characteristics of target and accessible populations that will qualify someone as participant

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59

exclusion criteria is the

characteristics that would prevent someone from being a participants

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60

sampling bias is when

certain attributes of a sample that aren't representative of population

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61

sampling bias means that the data you collect may

not be accurate or represent the population

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62

sampling bias can occur any time your sample is

not random sample

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63

sampling bias leads to

sampling error deviation of sample from the population

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64

probability sampling is

random selection every unit has equal chance of being chosen free of sampling error

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65

disproportionate sampling is

non random probability of selection isn't known sampling error can't be estimated

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66

disproportionate sampling is common in

clinical research certain condition or intervention

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67

stratified random sampling is

selecting randomly from intact groups ex: major certain participant characteristics are important

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68

in disproportionate sampling data are then

weighed meaning mathematically corrected due to sample having larger proportion than actual population

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69

cluster sampling is done when

accessible population is too large

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70

in cluster sampling sample is selected

using large units than smaller units multi stage selection process

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71

ex of cluster sampling

randomly select from all CT schools then from all 8th graders then from all latinos

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72

NHANES is the __ and they sample by

national health and nutrition examination survey to sample combines interviews and physical examination

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73

non probability sampling is done when

probability sampling isn't feasible each person does NOT have an equal chance of being selected

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74

in non probability sampling techniques are

arbitrary population of interest may be defined but there's little effort to sample from it sample can be very different from target population

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75

types of non-probability sampling

convenience purposive snowball quota

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76

in convenience sampling it is __ and potential for

done haphazard and based on availability potential for bias of self selection bonus it's very easy and inexpensive

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77

in purposive sampling

recrutiment is based on specific criteria

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78

in snowball sampling

there are hard to locate individuals recruit similar subjects

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79

selection in quota sampling

select subjects until number need is met ex: need a certain number of muslims for a study but isn't accurate to actual population proportions in the population

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80

quota sampling may limit

generalizing to the state population

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81

concepts are

mental representations an abstract idea terms we know the definition of as a society

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82

example of concepts

food father weight wheelchair

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83

constructs are

a concept created for a scientific purpose to be measured

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84

example of constructs

IQ shyness health pain love

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85

types of variables

continuous discrete

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86

continuous variables are

any value along a continuum can't be exactly measure and depends on degree of precision

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87

example of continuous variables

distance weight

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88

discrete variables are

categorical described as whole unit

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89

example of discrete variable

heart rate population

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90

levels of measurement

nominal ordinal interval ratio

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91

nominal is a

classification category label ex: sex nationality blood type

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92

ordinal is

rank order ex: pain, functional status

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93

interval is

equal intervals between numbers with NO TRUE ZERO ex: calendar years, IQ, temperature

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94

ratio is

units with equal intervals measure from TRUE ZERO ex: distance, length, age, time

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95

reliability is the

extent to which a measurement is consistent

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96

validity means measurement is

relatively free from error

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97

goal of validity in research

to show using a sample of people that a change in the IV caused a change in the DV and that this relationship can be generalized to population

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98

three types of validity

internal external construct

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99

internal validity means

ability to accurately draw conclusions about causal relationships

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100

external validity means

ability to generalize results to population and other settings

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