Better Bio 213w exam 1 flashcards

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angiosperm

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232 Terms

1

angiosperm

plants with enclosed seeds used for reproduction

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2

fertilization

addition of minerals to soil including nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus

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3

chlorosis

deficiency of magnesium which is a component of chlorophyll

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4

etiolation

plant adaptation to grow in darkness, pale stems and leaves

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5

de etiolation

“greening” leaves turn green when exposed to light after growing in darkness

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6

transcription factors

activates pathways that lead to gene expression

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7

phytochrome

leads to opening of calcium channels: light detection in de etiolation

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8

tropism

growth response that results in plants growing towards a stimulus

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9

phototropism

growth towards light

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10

gravitropism

growth in gravitational direction

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11

statoliths

dense cytoplasm components that settle under the influence of gravity to lower portions of the cell

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12

polar transport

transport is unidirectionally and is unrelated to gravity

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13

auxin

hormone that stimulates elongation

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14

acid growth hypothesis

  1. low ph activates expansins

  2. acidity increases

  3. proton pump activity increases

  4. cell wall loosening enzymes cleave, cross linking polysaccharides

  5. sliding cellulose microfibrils allow cells to elongate

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15

cytokinins

hormones that stimulate cytokinesis

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16

ethylene

hormone that can thicken stems, slows stem elongation, causes curvatures, can cause senescene

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17

senescene

controlled growth of death in certain cells

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18

thigmotrophs

allow vines to take advantage of mechanical support

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19

nitrification

involves bacteria to allow roots to absorb NO3-

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20

simple diffusion

form of passive transport, does not require assistance of membrane proteins

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21

bulk flow

movement of liquid in response to a pressure gradient

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22

self pruning

shedding of branches that are shaded or diseased

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23

apical dominance

controls root tip so it doesnt overgrow

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24

stele

central core of stem and root

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25

fibrous root

secondary roots that spread out in all directions

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26

abiotic pollination

pollination without involvement of organisms

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27

biotic pollination

uses insects, birds, or vertebrates to transport pollen

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28

anther

part of stamen that contains pollen

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29

antipodal cell

sit opposite of micropyle in embryo sac

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30

micropyle

where pollen tube penetrates

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31

carpel

female reproductive organ of a flower

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32

coevolution

joint evolution of two interacting species

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33

coleoptile

sheath protecting young fruit tip

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34

cotyledon

forms leaves after fertilization

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35

dehiscence

splitting of an anther (mature plant structure) to dry it out and release pollen

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36

differentiation

tissues undergo permanent change to perform a specialized cells

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37

dormancy

seed is alive but not dead. Goes dormant to wait for right conditions to germinate

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38

egg nucleus

undergoes double fertilization, eight nuclei in an embryo sac

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39

embryo

gets fertilized by pollen to germinate

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40

embryo sac

undergoes meiosis producing four haploid megaspores. What gets fertilzed

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41

endosperm

food storing tissue of seed

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42

epicotyl

first pair of miniature leaves

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43

epigeal

germination takes place above the ground

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44

eudicot

two cotyledon, taproot, vascular ring, net like veins, 4 or 5 flowers

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45

fertilization

fusion of gametes results in diploid zygote

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46

filament

stalk of the stamen

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47

flower

specialized for sexual reproduction

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48

fruit

encases seed to protect it, aids in dispersal

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49

gene expression

determines what genes appear in a plant

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50

generative cell

precursor that divides into two sperm cells in the developing male gametophyte

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51

germination

process of seed maturation

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52

gymnosperm

seeds unprotected my ovary or fruit

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53

hypocotyl

point where cotyledons are attached to in a seed

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54

hypogeal

germination takes place in the ground

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55

imbibition

rapid uptake of water to break out of dormancy during germination

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56

megaspore

germinate into a female gametophyte

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57

meiosis

cell division in sexual reproduction: produces pollen in males and embryos in females

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58

microspore

haploid spores that develop into male gametophytes

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59

mitosis

cell division, gives rise to multicellular gametophytes: produces antipodal, synergerids, polar nuclei and an egg cell from a surviving megaspore

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60

monocot

one cotyledon, fibrous root, vascular scattered, parallel veins, multiples of 3 flowers

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61

multicellularity

consists of more than one cell

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62

ovary

portion of carpel in which the egg containing ovules develop

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63

petal

sterile modified leaves to attract organisms for fertilization

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64

polar nuclei

two in an embryo sac, fuse to produce a diploid nucleus, which combines with a male nucleus to form the endosperm

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65

pollen grain

contains male gametophytes that are necessary for fertilization

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66

pollen tube

inserts into embryo sac to fertilize it

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67

pollination

use of insects to carry pollen to germinate female angiosperms

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68

radicle

embryonic root of a plant

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69

seed

embryonic structure of a plant

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70

seed coat

protects seed

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71

sepal

sterile modified leaves, encloses the petals

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72

sperm nuclei

attach to stigma of flower and send out pollen tubes

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73

stamen

male gametophyte composed of anther and filament

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74

stigma

sticky part of flower that captures pollen

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75

style

stalk of carpal with ovary at base and stigma at top

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76

synergid

two in an embryo sac near the micropyle

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77

totipotent

totally undifferentiated, gives rise to every cell type

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78

tube nucleus

guides growth of pollen tube as it enters micropyle

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79

whorl

spiral pattern

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80

zygote

fertilized egg

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81

apical meristem

buds that form at the top of a shoot

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82

axillary bud

buds form at stems and leaves intersection

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83

blade

large broad flat surface of a leaf

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84

bundle sheath cell

forms tightly packed layers around veins

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85

cellulose

found in cells walls of plants

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86

collenchyma

function in support, irregular thick walls

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87

companion cell

carry out cellular function of adjacent sieve tube elements

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88

compound leaf

contains many leaflets

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89

cortex

unspecialized cells in center of cell for support, transports water and nutrients and stores minerals

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90

cuticle

outer layer of plant to keep in water and used for protection

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91

dermal tissue

outer protective layer of primary plant body

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92

developmental plasticity

more than one developmental program for an organ or structure and environmental influence determines which will be expressed

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93

determinate

grows flowers to a specific size

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94

endodermis

barrier that regulates the flow of water and nutrients through the vascular system

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95

epidermis

protective tissue

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96

fiber cell

elongated cell for support:tapered and organized adjacent to vascular bundles

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97

fibrous root

branching roots growing from stem

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98

ground tissue

consists of parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma: structural support

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99

guard cell

open and closes stomata

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100

internode

portion of stem between level of insertion of two succesive leaves

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