Psych final

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Personality

1 / 119

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

120 Terms

1

Personality

long-standing traits and patterns that propel individuals to consistently think, feel, and behave in specific ways

New cards
2

Freudian Explanation of Personality

  • Freud suggested that 90% of our mind is unconscious

  • Freud defined Personality as a conflict between two forces:

    • our biological (and unconscious) aggressive and sexual drives

    • our internal (socialized) control over these drives

New cards
3

Id

  • present from birth (primitive, innate, instinct)

  • pleasure principle

New cards
4

Superego

  • develops through social interaction

  • conscience (moral compass)

New cards
5

Ego/ Self

  • rational mind

  • balance id and superego in context of reality

New cards
6

Imbalances

in the system can lead to neurosis

New cards
7

Neurosis

defined as a tendency to experience negative emotions, anxiety disorders, or unhealthy behaviors

New cards
8

Defense Mechanism

  • is defined as unconscious protective behaviors aimed at reducing negative emotions.

  • is used when ego is unable to mediate between id and superego

New cards
9

Denial

refusal to accept reality (real events) because they are unpleasant.

ex.

  • smokers refuses that smoking is bad for their health

  • partners refuses obvious sign of cheating

New cards
10

Repression

  • suppressing painful memories and thoughts (keep thoughts from being conscious)

  • nickname: “motivated forgetting”

  • may reappear through subconscious means and in altered forms, such as dreams or slips of the tongue

Ex.

  • people with PTSD symptoms

New cards
11

Projection

  • attributes unwanted thoughts, feelings, and motives onto another person

  • tendency to see your own unacceptable desires in other people

Ex.

  • you hate someone, but hatred is bad. Thus, you tell yourself that the other person hates you.

New cards
12

Displacement

the redirection of an impulse (usually aggression) onto a powerless substitute target

Ex.

  • a child who was abused at home bullies other children at school

  • someone who is frustrated by his or her superiors may go home and kick the dog, beat up a family member, or engage in cross-burning.

New cards
13

Sublimation

displace our unacceptable emotions into behaviors which are constructive and socially acceptable, rather than destructive activities.

Ex.

  • play a sport instead of expressing aggression

  • use art and music to express unhappiness

New cards
14

Regression

ego reverts to an earlier stage of development usually in response to stressful situations.

Ex.

  • a child may begin to suck their thumb again or wet the bed when they need to spend some time in the hospital.

New cards
15

Rationalization

  • engage in a cognitive distortion of “the facts” to make an event or an impulse less threatening.

  • making excuses

Ex.

  • use “God’s will” to explain natural disaster

New cards
16

Reaction Formation

a person goes beyond denial and behaves in the opposite way to which he or she thinks or feels.

Ex.

  • hate something but pretends to like it

New cards
17

Neo-Freudians

  • followers of Freud who modified his ideas into new theories of personality

    • Alfred Adler

    • Erik Erickson

    • Carl Jung

    • Karen Horney

  • Generally agree that childhood experiences matter, but emphasized sex and focused more on the social environment and effects of culture on personality

New cards
18

Alfred Adler

  • founded individual psychology- focuses on the drive to compensate for feelings of inferiority

  • behaviors are motivated by inferiority through conscious completion of 3 social tasks

    • occupational tasks

    • societal tasks

    • love tasks

  • Childhood development stems from social connections and working together

New cards
19

Erik Erickson

  • personality develops through lifespan

  • psychosocial stages of development

New cards
20

Carl Jung

  • analytical psychology

    • self-realization

    • collective unconscious (mental patterns common to all people)

      • facing death, becoming independent, striving for mastery

  • extroversion v introversion

New cards
21

Analytical Psychology

balance of opposing forces within one’s personality and the significance of the collective unconscious

New cards
22

Karen Horney

  • every person has potential for self-realization

  • goal of psychoanalysis should be toward a healthy self

  • focused on the role of coping with unconscious anxiety stemming from needs not being met

    • childhood loneliness

New cards
23

Moving toward people

affiliation and dependence

Ex.

child seeking positive attention and affection from parent; adult needing love

New cards
24

Moving Against People

aggression and manipulation

Ex.

child fighting or bullying other children; adult who is abrasive and verbally hurtful, or who exploits others

New cards
25

Moving away from people

detachment and isolation

Ex.

child withdrawn from the world and isolated; adult loner

New cards
26

Behaviorist (Skinner)

  • personality is shaped by environmental reinforcements and consequences only

  • behavior based on prior learning, not innate traits

New cards
27

Reciprocal Determinism

cognitive processes, behavior, and context all interact

New cards
28

Self-Efficacy

someone’s level of confidence in their own abilities, developed through their social experiences

  • cognitive factor

    • high vs low self-efficacy

New cards
29

Locus of control (cognitive factor)

someone’s belief about the power they have over their own life

New cards
30

Humanism

how do healthy people develop personality?

  • focus is on individual choices and not the deterministic factors of biology

New cards
31

Self-Actualization

the achievement of our fullest potential

New cards
32

Self-Concept

our thoughts and feelings about ourselves

  • ideal self v real self

  • congruence v incongruence

New cards
33

Trait

combination of many genes the produce characteristic patterns of behavior (optimistic v pessimistic; sociable v shy)

New cards
34

Allport

list of 4,500 descriptive words

New cards
35

Cattell

every person has all of the possible personality traits; we only differ in the degree to which each trait is expressed

New cards
36

Cattell’s 16 Personality Factors

  • warmth

  • reasoning

  • emotional stability

  • dominance

  • liveliness

  • rule-consciousness

  • social boldness

  • sensitivity

  • vigilance

  • abstractedness

  • privateness

  • apprehension

  • openness to change

  • self-reliance

  • perfectionism

  • tension

New cards
37

Eysenck

Two personality dimensions:

  • extroversion/introversion

  • neuroticism/stability

New cards
38

Big Five Factor model

most popular theory in psychology today

everyone possesses each trait, but they occur on a spectrum

O-openness

C-conscietiousness

E-extroversion

A-agreeableness

N-neuroticism

New cards
39

Self-Report

  • likert scales

  • Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI)

    • personality test over 500 t/f questions to establish a clinical profile

New cards
40

Projective tests

a way to assess unconscious and hidden processes, feelings, impulses, and desires

  • interpret ambiguous stimuli

New cards
41

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

gives insight into the person’s social world, revealing hopes, fears, interests, and goals

New cards
42

Barnum Effect

the tendency to accept certain information as true, such as character assessments or horoscopes, even when the information is so vague as to be worthless

New cards
43

What is a psychological disorder?

  • disturbances in thoughts, feelings, and behaviors

  • disturbances reflect some kind of biological, psychological, or developmental dysfunction

  • disturbances lead to significant distress or disability

  • disturbances do not reflect expected or culturally approved responses to certain events

New cards
44

Supernatural perspective

  • disorders attributed to a force beyond scientific understanding

  • still held in some cultures

New cards
45

Biological perspective

attributes disorders to genetic factors, chemical imbalances and brain abnormalities

New cards
46

Medical Model

psychological disorders have symptoms that can be treated or cured

New cards
47

Psychosocial perspective

emphasizes importance of learning, stress, faulty and self-defeating thinking patterns, and environmental factors

New cards
48

The Diathesis-Stress Model of Psychological Disorders

  • integrates biological and psychosocial factors to predict the liklihood of a disorder

  • people with underlying predisposition for a disorder (diathesis) are more likely to develop a disorder when faced with adverse environmental of psychological events (stress)

  • both factors MUST be present

New cards
49

Diagnosing and Classifying Psychological Disorders

  • the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5)

  • overview of the disorder

  • specific symptoms required for diagnosis

  • prevalence and risk factors

New cards
50

Comorbidity

having 2 or more diagnosis at the same time

New cards
51

Anxiety Disorders

Characterized by

  • excessive and persistent fear and/or anxiety that interferes with normal functioning

  • related disturbances in behavior

  • most common class of mental disorders

    • 25-30% of U.S. population

  • more common in women than men

    • 23% of women, 14% in men

  • includes: specific phobia, social anxiety, panic attacks/disorder, agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder

New cards
52

Specific Phobias

  • excessive, distressing, and persistent fear, anxiety, and/or avoidance of a specific object or situation

  • Phobias develop through learning

    • classical conditioning, modeling, verbal transmission

New cards
53

Agoraphobia

fear or avoidance of situations due to worries that escape may be difficult or may not be available if panic-like symptoms or other embarrassing/incapacitating symptoms arise

New cards
54

Social Anxiety Disorder

fear of social situations where the person could be evaluated negatively by others (real or perceived)

New cards
55

Panic Attacks

  • period of extreme fear or discomfort that develops suddenly and peaks within 10 minutes

  • may experience sweating, trembling, faintness, or fear of losing control, going crazy or dying

  • can be expected or unexpected

New cards
56

Panic Disorders

  • recurrent panic attacks with at least 1 month of worry

  • suddenly overwhelmed by panic even though there is no apparent reason to be frightened

New cards
57

Somatic Symptoms of Panic Attacks

  • feeling dizzy, unsteady, lightheaded

  • shortness of breath

  • chest pain, palpitations and/or accelerated heart rate

  • nausea or abdominal distress

New cards
58

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

a continuous state of excessive, uncontrollable, and pointless worry about routine, everyday things, even though these concerns are unjustified

  • 5.7% of U.S. population

  • 2x more likely in women

New cards
59

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Characterized by:

  • obsessions

  • compulsions

can have obsessions, compulsions, or both

OCD as moderate genetic component

New cards
60

Obsessions

unwanted and intrusive thoughts and urges

New cards
61

Compulsions

need to engage in repetitive behaviors or mental acts

New cards
62

Brain Regions Associated with Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders

  • Anterior cingulate cortex (hoarding disorder)

  • prefrontal cortex (body dysmorphic disorder)

  • orbitofrontal cortex (obsessive-compulsive disorder)

    • caudade nucleus (OCD)

New cards
63

Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Body dysmorphic disorder-- invisible flaws

  • preoccupation with imagined physical flaws that drives the person to engage in repetitive and ritualistic behavioral and mental acts

New cards
64

Hoarding Disorder

characterized by persistent difficulty parting with possessions, regardless of their actual value or usefulness

New cards
65

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: PTSD

extreme stress, fear, and anxiety from exposure to, witnessing, or experiencing the details of a traumatic experience that involved actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violence and the following changes due to the trauma:

  • intrusive and distressing memories of the event

  • avoidance of stimuli connected to the event

  • negative alterations in cognition or emotional states

  • alteration in arousal or reactivity

New cards
66

Development and Maintenance of PTSD

  • role of classical conditioning

  • two cognitive factors play a role in the development of PTSD:

    • disturbances in memory of the event

    • negative appraisals of the trauma and its aftermath

  • social support is important following traumatic experiences

New cards
67

Mood Disorders

  • severe disturbances in mood and emotion

  • two general categories:

    • depressive disorders

    • bipolar and related disorders

New cards
68

Depressive Disorders

depression (intense and persistent sadness) is the defining feature

New cards
69

Bipolar

mania (extreme elation and agitation) is the defining feature

New cards
70

Major Depressive Disorders

Characterized by at least 5 of the following for 2 weeks:

  • depressed mood most of the day, nearly everyday

  • loss of pleasure in usual activities (Anhedonia)

  • significant weight loss/gain and/or change in appetite

  • difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or sleeping too much

  • psychomotor agitation or retardation

  • fatigue or loss of energy

  • feelings of worthlessness or guilt

  • difficulty concentrating and indecisiveness

  • suicidal ideation

70% recover from MDD within a year

  • minor symptoms may still appear, with fluctuations in severity

12% still show significant impairment after 5 years

New cards
71

episodic

symptoms are present at full magnitude for a certain period of time and then gradually diminish

New cards
72

Persistent Depressive Disorder

persistent symptoms of MDD for two years

New cards
73

Seasonal Depression

MDD symptoms only during a particular time of the year

New cards
74

Postpartum Depression

MDD symptoms during pregnancy or 4 weeks after giving birth

New cards
75

Cognitive Models of Depression

Hopelessness theory (Beck’s Cognitive Triad)

Rumination

New cards
76

Bipolar Disorder

  • mood states that switch between depression and mania

  • depressive episodes not required for diagnosis

  • genetic factors play a stronger role with than with MDD

  • at least one manic episode in their lifetime (lasting one week)

    • inflated self-esteem or grandiosity

    • decreased need for sleep

    • more talkative than usual or pressured to keep talking

    • flight of ideas or subjective experience that thoughts are racing

    • distractibility

    • increase in goal-directed activity

    • excessive involvement in activities that have a high potential for painful consequences

New cards
77

Psychotic Disorder

one’s thoughts, perceptions, and behaviors are significantly impaired, such that normal functioning is absent

New cards
78

Schizophrenia: Biology

  • both genetic vulnerability and environmental stress (triggers) are necessary for schizophrenia to develop

  • Genetic & Environmental Vulnerabilities

  • Childbirth complications

    • maternal stress

    • maternal exposure to influenza

  • dopamine hypothesis

New cards
79

Childhood Disorders

Neurodevelopmental disorders

  • first diagnosed or symptoms appear in childhood

  • involve developmental problems in academic, intellectual, and social functioning

New cards
80

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

constant pattern of inattention and/or hyperactive and impulse behavior

New cards
81

Causes of ADHD

  • approximately 72% heritability

  • reduced dopamine regulation and activity in areas of the brain associated with motivation and reward

  • less likely due to environmental or social factors because ADHD concordance rates for unrelated, adopted siblings was extremely low

New cards
82

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

The major features of ASD include disturbances in:

  • deficits in social communication

    • deficits in conversational reciprocity

    • deficits in nonverbal communication

    • deficits in developing, maintaining, or understanding relationships

  • restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior or interests

New cards
83

Causes of ASD

genetic factors appear to play a prominent role in the development of autism spectrum disorder (60-90% concordance rates in identical twins)

  • father’s age

exposure to environmental pollutants such as mercury or vitamin D deficiency have also been linked to the development of this disorder

New cards
84

Multiple Personality Disorder

Dissociative identity disorder; formerly multiple personality disorder

2 or more separate personalities or identities, each well-defined and distinct from one another

memory gaps between identity changes

90% of individuals with DID experienced childhood trauma

New cards
85

What is a Personality Disorder?

  • personality is the way of thinking, feeling and behaving that makes a person different from other people

  • personality disorder is a way of thinking, feeling, and behaving that deviates from the expectations of the culture, causes distress or problems functioning, and lasts over time

New cards
86

Cluster A Disorders

people with these disorders display a personality style that is odd or eccentric

New cards
87

Cluster B Disorders

people with these disorders usually are impulsive, overly dramatic, highly emotional, and erratic

New cards
88

Cluster C Disorders

people with these disorders often appear to be nervous and fearful

New cards
89

Paranoid

pervasive and unjustifiable suspiciousness and mistrust of others

New cards
90

Schizoid

lacks interest and desire to form relationship with others, show emotional coldness and detachment

New cards
91

Schizotypal

oddities in thought, perception, emotion, speech, and behavior, has unusual perceptual experiences

New cards
92

Antisocial

continuously violates the rights of others, often lies, fights, and has problems with the law, impulsive, deceitful and manipulative, lacks remorse

New cards
93

Histrionic

excessively overdramatic, emotional, and theatrical, feels uncomfortable when not the center of others’ attention, behavior is often inappropriately seductive or provacative

New cards
94

Narcissistic

overinflated and unjustified sense of self-importance and preoccupied with fantasies of success, feels entitled to special treatment, arrogant, takes advantage of others, lacks empathy

New cards
95

Borderline

unstable in self-image, mood, and behavior, cannot tolerate being alone and experiences chronic feelings of emptiness, unstable and intense relationships with others, behavior is impulsive, unpredictable, and sometimes self-damaging

New cards
96

Avoidant

socially inhibited and oversensitive to negative evaluation, fears criticism or rejection, views self as socially inept and unappealing

New cards
97

Dependent

submissive, clingy, fears separation, cannot make decisions without advice and reassurance from others, lacks self-confidence and independence, feels uncomfortable or helpless when alone

New cards
98

Obsessive-Compulsive

pervasive need for perfectionism that interferes with the ability to complete tasks, preoccupied with details, rules, order, and schedules, workaholic, stubborn, insists things be done their way, extremely frugal

New cards
99

History of Mental Health Treatment

  • 18th century- asylums were created to house people with psychological disorders

  • 1950s and 60s- antipsychotic medications introduced

  • 1963- Deinstitutionalization closed asylums with the goal of treating people in their communities

New cards
100

Where do People Get Mental Health Treatment

  • primary care physician then referred to a mental health practitioner

  • community mental health center

  • private practice offices

  • schools

  • prison

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 38 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 59 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(3)
note Note
studied byStudied by 61 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 36 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard23 terms
studied byStudied by 48 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard59 terms
studied byStudied by 97 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard73 terms
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard37 terms
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard26 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard501 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)