4.11 urban regeneration and stakeholders

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What has Kings Cross experienced since 2001?

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1

What has Kings Cross experienced since 2001?

change, urban transformation

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2

What has Angell Town experienced since 1981?

change, urban transformation

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3

What do different stakeholders perceive?

change

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4

How were the characteristics and perceptions of Kings Cross before the regeneration?

Derelict

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5

Drugs

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6

Prostitution

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7

What are the characteristics of Kings Cross like now?

CSM

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8

Waitrose

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9

Google headquarters

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10

Where is Kings Cross?

Camden, North London

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11

Kings Cross in an example of?

Mixed-use transport hub, includes principles of urban space

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12

Kings Cross historical heritage has been....

Retained

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13

Why did Kings Cross need regeneration?

Needed new housing, had become area for drugs and prostitution, unused land in the heart of the city and dereliction.

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14

What was Kings Cross like in 1806?

St Pancras= field, yet to be urbanised

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15

What was Kings Cross like in 1898?

Camden= urbanised

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16

Kings Cross St Pancras= cut-cover railway, closed to public, just the railway

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17

What did Charles Booth's poverty map in 1898 show?

Area of diversity

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18

Red areas: well-to-do, middle class

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19

Black areas: by the station, semi-criminal area

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20

What was Kings Cross like in 1939-44?

Bomb damage: rail terminal at Kings Cross

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21

What is Kings Cross like now?

Private public space

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22

2 railway stations

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23

Diversity of use: commercial, educational and recreational

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24

What urban transformation has Kings Cross undertaken from 2001 to 2018?

2001: derelict

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25

2018: Thomas Heatherwick building/ Samsung building

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26

Redevelopment of brownfield sites such as Granary Square and Coal Drops Yard

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27

How did the local community in the Kings Cross urban change act as a player?

343 meetings for local people to voice what they wanted

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28

How did the national government in the Kings Cross urban change act as a player?

Gave the site to the property designers as long as it became a hub for the flow of people coming through

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29

How did the local council in the Kings Cross urban change act as a player?

Camden council provided Argent with an area to develop

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30

How did businesses in the Kings Cross urban change act as a player?

Argent: property developer worked with the local authorities on the regeneration

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31

What are examples of Brownfield sites in Kings Cross?

1851 Granary Building

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32

Where is Angell Town?

Brixton, Lambeth= south London

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33

How much was invested in the Angell town regeneration?

£60 million

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34

What did the Angell Town regeneration focus on?

young people

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35

How was Angell Town perceived before the regeneration?

Hub for violent crime especially knife crime, gangs e.g Guns and Shanks

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36

What were the goals of the urban transformation in Angell Town?

Mixed- use, serve all generations

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37

Strong emphasis on not displacing, but to better serve the community

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38

How did the local community in the Angell Town urban change act as a player?

They paired up with donors to make a change to the disadvantages housing state= giving £400,000

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39

How did the national government in the Angell Town urban change act as a player?

Provided £200,000 for the expansion of other estates

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40

How did the local council in the Angell Town urban change act as a player?

Lambeth council gave £100,000 and provided national governments and charities with a place to redevelop

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41

How did businesses in the Angell Town urban change act as a player?

Local businesses provided training and jobs for those seeking employment

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42

How many grassroot groups were funded in the Angell Town development?

18

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43

What happened to the community centre in Angell Town in 2012?

Closed town due to gang activity

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44

Before the urban change in Angell Town what problems were associated with a lack of facilities?

No shops

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45

No community centre

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46

No primary school

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47

What reopened in 2016 in Angell Town?

St John's Angell Town CofE primary school

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48

How many people live in Angell Town?

4,000

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49

What proportion of the Angell Town population are from a BAME background?

62%

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50

What is poverty like in Angell Town?

More than ½ of the population is living in poverty

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51

In top 10% most deprived IMD ranking

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52

What is the crime rate in Angell Town?

x2 the London rate

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53

What proportion of households in Angell Town are social rented?

66%

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54

What is the population density in Angell Town?

2.7 x the London average

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55

What is the male life expectancy in Angell Town?

73 (5 years lower than the London average)

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56

What did the reputation of Kings Cross deter?

investment

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57

How much was invested in the Kings Cross urban transformation?

£3 billion

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58

What is the main principle of an urban city?

Mixed urban use

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59

How many people visit Kings Cross every day?

30,000 daily visitors

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60

What was the scale of the regeneration?

27 hectare regeneration

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61

How many acres of green space in the Kings Cross regeneration?

26 acres

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62

What stakeholders were involved in the Kings Cross regeneration?

Local community, local council, national government, property developers e.g Argent + TNCs e.g Google

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63

What were perceptions of Kings Cross like before?

Dereliction, drug use, prostitution

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64

What economic improvements have been seen in Kings Cross?

  • It is estimated that 35,000 jobs were created by 2020 e.g by Google which has its headquarters in Kings Cross.

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65
  • TNCs attracted, bring investment to Kings Cross

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66
  • Google's headquarters has brought 3,000 new jobs and Guardian has brought 1,000 new jobs

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67
  • Kings Cross + St Pancras transport hub- interchange connects to Paris: encourages tourists and businesses

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68

What J can be made about economic improvements in Kings Cross?

  • Jobs from TNCs are not from the local area as they require high-skilled workers

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69
  • Transit hub: it increases congestion and is too expensive for most.

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70

What social improvements have been seen in Kings Cross?

  • 2000 new homes: helps to meet demand and reduce pressure on housing crisis

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  • 2 schools including the Frank Barnes school for deaf children + a university using Brownfield site

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72

What J can be made about social improvements in Kings Cross?

  • Only 37% of homes are affordable= what is affordable?, too exclusive, doesn't serve entire local community

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73
  • Exclusive= public/private space e.g Granary square by Argent= shrinking public space?, favouring business owners?, who is it serving?

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74
  • Signs like: "Please enjoy this private estate considerately."/ shrinking public space creates tension= e.g Argent security using facial recognition across Kings Cross= not democratic

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75

What demographic improvements have been seen in Kings Cross ?

UAL: attracts young people + youth mix means young people buy homes and spend money in the local area: sense of community in local area

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76

Social mix: multiple uses: recreational, educational, commercial uses

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77

What J can be made about demographic improvements in Kings Cross?

Schools and university attract students from all over the UK, it is not only for locals.

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78

Specialist schools don't serve entire community

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79

What environment improvements have been seen in Kings Cross?

  • 10 new public squares and parks e.g Gas holder parks

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80
  • 26 acres of open space

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  • Improved environment, air quality and quality of life

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82
  • Green spaces e.g Skip gardens= compost sites and beehives

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83
  • 20 restored historic buildings, brownfield sites e.g 1851 Granary building

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84

What J can be made about environmental improvements in Kings Cross?

  • Much of land privately owned

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85
  • Still high levels of congestion + poor air quality

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86

What impact has the regeneration had on violent crime in Kings Cross? (J)

  • Lack of data to suggest the regeneration has had a reduction on violent crime

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87
  • Fluctuation in crime rates from 2014-19

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88
  • Crime rate: 182/1000

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89

Crime count: 2,230 from 2014-19

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90

What impact has the regeneration had on flat prices in Camden?

  • Disproportionate increase in house prices in Camden

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91
  • Camden: 117% increase in flat prices from 2006-2019

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92

What percentage increase in flat price did Camden experience from 2006-2019?

117% increase

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93

What percentage increase in flat price did London experience from 2006-2019?

98% increase

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94

What percentage increase in flat price did Brixton experience from 2006-2019?

98% increase

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95

What does a sharp increase in flat prices in Camden suggest?

displacement

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96

When was the Angell Town estate built?

the 1970s

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97

What is the scale of the Angell Town regeneration?

small-scale

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98

What economic improvements have been seen in Angell Town?

  • Income from the rent of studio office helps fund the communal training facilities: organised by the Angell Town Community Project

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99
  • Football pitch installed: costing £31,000

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100
  • Lambeth Council gave £50,000

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