Patho Exam 1 (copy)

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<p>Atrophy is a type of cellular adaptation where there is a _____ in cell size due to ____ synthesis or increased _____ _____, or both.</p>

Atrophy is a type of cellular adaptation where there is a _____ in cell size due to ____ synthesis or increased _____ _____, or both.

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1
<p>Atrophy is a type of cellular adaptation where there is a _____ in cell size due to ____ synthesis or increased _____ _____, or both.</p>

Atrophy is a type of cellular adaptation where there is a _____ in cell size due to ____ synthesis or increased _____ _____, or both.

a decrease in cell due to protein synthesis or increased protein catabolism or both.

<p>a <strong>decrease</strong> in cell due to <strong>protein</strong> synthesis or increased <strong>protein catabolism</strong> or both.</p>
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2
<p>Hypertrophy is cellular adaption where there is an _____ in _____ of cell due to _____ work demands or _____  _____.</p>

Hypertrophy is cellular adaption where there is an _____ in _____ of cell due to _____ work demands or _____ _____.

increase in size of cell due to increased work demands or hormonal stimulation.

<p><strong>increase</strong> in size of cell due to <strong>increased</strong> work demands or <strong>hormonal</strong> <strong>stimulation</strong>.</p>
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3

Example of physiologic cellular adaption (normal stressors)

enlargement of skeletal muscles with exercise.

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4

Example of pathologic cellular adaption (abnormal stressors)

enlargement of the heart due to CHF (congenital heart failure)

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5
<p>Hyperplasia is a cellular adaptation where the ___ of cells ___.</p>

Hyperplasia is a cellular adaptation where the ___ of cells ___.

amount of cells increases.

<p><strong>amount</strong> of cells <strong>increases</strong>.</p>
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6
<p>Metaplasia is a cellular adaption with the ____ of one ____ ____ to another.</p>

Metaplasia is a cellular adaption with the ____ of one ____ ____ to another.

the conversion of one cell type to another.

<p>the <strong>conversion</strong> of one <strong>cell type</strong> to another.</p>
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7
<p>Dysplasia (cellular adaptation) is  ____ cell ____.</p>

Dysplasia (cellular adaptation) is ____ cell ____.

disorderly cell growth.

<p><strong>disorderly</strong> cell <strong>growth</strong>.</p>
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8

What term describes varying degrees of a disease?

expressivity

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9

This term describes how to define a child’s parents who are siblings.

consanguinity

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10

Another name for Down Syndrome is

Trisomy 21

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11

What is the genetic term for an allele with observable effects?

dominance

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12

What is the most important risk factor for Down Syndrome?

increased maternal age

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13

What aneuploidy (cell containing abnormal # of chromosomes) occurs in females only?

Turner’s syndrome

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14

In Klinefelter’s disease, this a variant:

abnormal # of X chromosomes with at least one Y chromosome.

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15

What can you conclude if a couple has 2 children and only 1 has CF (cystic fibrosis) and the other does not?

both parents of the children are carriers.

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16

What autosomal recessive disorder is characterized by defective chloride and thick mucous?

cystic fibrosis

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17

What is the most common genetic disorder that is not a X-linked disorder?

Down syndrome

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18

What is the definition of metaplasia?

the conversion of one cell type to another

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19

What is the type of cellular change expected with a lung cancer diagnosis?

dysplasia

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20

To confirm somatic death, you should look for

cessation of respiratory and circulatory function.

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21

What is the term is used to describe cellular destruction through programmed death?

apoptosis

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22

What is the cause of warmth and swelling during inflammation?

increased vascular permeability

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23

A provider notes that a group of institutionalized people develop similar respiratory symptoms due to what type of necrosis?

caseous necrosis

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24

What type of tissue includes skeletal and smooth?

muscular tissue

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25

What term describes a steady decline in body temperature to match ambient temperature?

algomortus (when you die your body temperature matches the temperature of the room)

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26

Liquefactive necrosis occurs in the brain, why?

the cells are digested by self hydrolase because the brain is rich in hydrolytic enzymes and lipids.

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27

Irreversible cell injury involves an increase in intracellular what?

massive calcium influx

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28

What term describes the outward manifestation of a disease?

phenotype

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29

What type of pathologic atrophy occurs with prolonged bedrest?

decreased muscle size atrophy

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30

If the skin is breached, the second line of defense is activated, known as:

inflammatory response

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31

The bacteria that make up normal flora prevents two things:

colonization and multiplication

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32

What type of cells responds to parasitic infection?

eosinophils

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33

____ is a protein synthesized by the liver, as are all ___ ____ except for immunoglobulins, and is catabolized by all ____ active tissues.

albumin, liver, plasma proteins except for immunoglobulins, and catabolized by all metabolically active tissues.

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34

Oncotic/ osmotic pressure in induced by ____, notably ____.

proteins, albumin

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35

_____ fluid is the fluid that lies within tissues, outside of and in between the ____.

interstitial fluid, the cell

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36

Intracellular fluid is ____ the cell while extracellular fluid lies ____ of the cell.

within, outside

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37

____ is a process by which molecules of a ____ (water) tend to pass through a ____ membrane from a ____ concentrated solution into a ____ concentrated one, thus ____ the concentrations on each side of the ____.

osmosis, solvent, semipermeable, less, more, equalizing, membrane

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38

Osmosis equalizes ____ and happens only in a ____ medium.

concentration, liquid

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39

____ is the tendency of the ____ of a ____ (gas/ liquid/ solid) to move from a region of ____ to ____ concentration.

diffusion, molecules, substance, high, low

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40

Diffusion moves molecules from

a high to low concentration

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41

Osmosis moves molecules from

a low to high concentration

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42

True of false: diffusion can happen only through solid or gas.

false, diffusion can happen through solid, liquid, or gas.

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43

In the body, oxygen and carbon dioxide move by ____.

diffusion

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44

Water is __% of body weight in adults.

60%

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45

Water is __% to __% of body weight in children.

75%-80%

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46

Aging adults experience ____ free fat and ____ mass, and renal decline.

decreased free fat and muscle mass, and renal decline

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47

____ pressure pushes water out of capillaries (____).

Hydrostatic, (filtration).

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48

Hydrostatic pressure is higher during ____.

filtration

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49

____ / ____ pressure puts water into capillaries (____). It holds onto ____ molecules.

osmotic/ oncotic (reabsorption).

water molecules

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50

Oncotic pressure is higher during ____.

reabsorption

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51

____ (osm) is the concentration of salt in the ____ / blood.

osmolality, plasma

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52

The range for serum/ plasma osmolality is ___- ___ mOsm/kg.

280-295 mOsm/kg

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53

____ is the protein responsible for oncotic pressure.

albumin

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54

Forces favoring filtration:

  • _____ hydrostatic pressure ( ____ pressure)

  • _____ (in between capillaries, space between cells) oncotic pressure (water- pulling)

  • capillary hydrostatic pressure (blood pressure)

  • interstitial (space between cells) oncotic pressure

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55

Forces favoring reabsorption:

  • capillary ____ pressure (water- pulling)

  • interstitial ____ pressure

  • capillary oncotic pressure

  • interstitial hydrostatic pressure

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56

_____ hormone (ADH) helps retain/ reabsorb the amount of ____ in your body.

antidiuretic hormone, water

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57

ADH works to control the amount of ____ that the ____ reabsorb as they filter out ____ from your ____ (urination).

water, kidneys, waste, blood

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58

A high ADH level causes the body to produce ____ urine.

A low level of ADH results in ____ urine production.

less, greater

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59

The higher the ____ (concentration), the ____ the ADH level.

osmolality, higher

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60

Acid in the body is called

carbon dioxide (CO2)

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61

Alkaline in the body is referred to as

bicarbonate (HCO3)

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62

What is the normal body pH range?

7.35- 7.45

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63

The normal CO2 range in the body is

35-45 mmHg (millimeters of mercury)

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64

The normal partial pressure range of oxygen in the body is __- 100mmHg.

80-100 mmHg

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65

The normal bicarbonate range in the body is 22-__mmHg.

22-26 mmHg

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66

The normal oxygen saturation range is

95-100%

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67

____ - ____ system (RAS) is triggered by a drop in ____ ____ and a drop in ____ volume.

renin- angiotensin system (RAS), drop in blood pressure, fluid

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68

The first step in the RAS system is ____ release from kidneys (increase in ____ volume by ____ fluids).

____ also releases ____.

renin (fluid volume by reabsorbing fluids)

liver, angiotensinogen

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69

2nd step in RAS system:

____ then acts on angiotensinogen to form ____ I.

renin, angiotensin I.

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70

3rd step in RAS system:

ACE (angiotensin- ____ ____) release from ____.

angiotensin- converting enzyme, lungs

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71

4th step in RAS system:

ACE acts on angiotensin to form ____ II.

____ II also acts directly on blood ____ stimulating ____ (narrowing).

angiotensin II.

angiotensin II, blood vessels stimulating vasoconstriction

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72

5th step in RAS system:

Angiotensin II acts on the ____ gland to stimulate the release of ____.

adrenal, aldosterone

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73

(RAS system)

Aldosterone acts on the kidneys to stimulate reabsorption of ____ and ____.

salt and water

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74

The goal of renin- angiotensin system is to raise ____ ____ and ____ ____.

blood pressure and fluid volume

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75

Infarction is

a complete loss of blood supply.

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76

Ischemia is ____ / inadequate blood supply.

reduced

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77

ANP (atrial natriuretic hormone) BNP (brain natriuretic peptide) system counteracts the ___ system.

RAS

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78

ANP increases _____ excretion.

sodium

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79

BNP increases _____ excretion.

fluid

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80

ANP BNP system works by increasing ____ (which decreases ____ volume), performing ____ (which decreases ____ ____), and decreasing ____.

GFR- glomerular filtration rate, blood, vasodilation, blood pressure, renin

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81

The solution with the higher solute concentration is _____.

The solution with the lower concentration is _____.

The solution with the same concentration is _____.

hypertonic, hypotonic, isotonic

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82

Edema is the accumulation of _____ within the _____ spaces.

Edema is caused by an increase in _____ _____ pressure, a decrease in plasma ____ pressure, an increase in ____ permeability, and ____ channel obstruction (lymphedema).

fluid, interstitial

capillary hydrostatic pressure, plasma oncotic pressure, capillary permeability, and lymph channel obstruction.

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83

What is the normal sodium range?

135-145 mEq/L

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84

The normal potassium range is 3.5-_ mEq/L.

3.5-5 mEq/L

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85

The normal ____ range is 8.5-10.5 mEq/L.

calcium

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86

Hyperkalemia (high potassium) is categorized by (think tight and contracted):

in the heart: peaked _ waves, _fib or ____ standstill, hypotension, ___cardia.

in the GI tract: diarrhea and ____ bowel sounds.

neuromuscular: paralysis in ____ extremities, increased ____, profound muscle ____.

T waves, Vfib or cardiac standstill, hypotension, bradycardia.

diarrhea and hyperactive bowel sounds

paralysis in lower extremities, increased DTR (deep tendon reflex), profound muscle weakness

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87

Hypokalemia (low potassium) is categorized by (think low and slow):

in the heart: flat _ waves, __ depression, and prominent _ wave.

muscular: decreased ___, muscle ____, and flaccid ____ (paralyzed limbs).

GI tract: decreased _____, _____ to absent bowel sounds, _____, abdominal _____, paralytic ileus, paralyzed intestines.

flat T waves, ST depression, prominent U wave.

decreased DTR, muscle cramping, and flaccid paralysis.

decreased motility, hypoactive to bowel sounds, constipation, abdominal distention (enlargement) paralytic ileus, paralyzed intestines.

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88

Hypernatremia (high sodium) is categorized by (think big and bloated):

____ “red and rosy”

____ “waterbed skin”

___ ___ fever

____ (hyper thirst)

flush, edema, low grade fever, polydipsia

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89

Hyponatremia is categorized by (think depressed and deflated):

neuro: ____ & ____

seizures & coma

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90

Hypercalcemia is categorized by

swollen & slow

moans, groans and stones

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91

Hypocalcemia is categorized by

Trousseau’s sign, Chvostek’s sign

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92

Trousseau’s sign is a sign of _____ and demonstrates

_____ of the thumb, flexion of the _____ joints, extension of the _____ joints, and flexion of the _____.

hypocalcemia, adduction, metacarpophalangeal, interphalangeal joints, wrist

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93

Chvostek’s sign is a sign of _____ and demonstrates _____ of the lip to _____ of all facial muscles.

hypocalcemia, twitching, spasm

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94

Hypovolemia is isotonic fluid _____.

loss

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95

Isotonic fluid excess is known as _____.

hypervolemia

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96

Glomerular filtration rate is the amount of _____ passing through the _____ per _____.

blood, glomeruli, minute

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97

Creatinine is a chemical waste product made as a by-product of normal _____ _____, excreted by the _____.

muscle contractions, kidneys

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98

Blood urea nitrogen is a waste product in the _____ from _____ metabolism.

blood, protein

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99

24- hour urine osmolality range is ___-___ mOsm/kg of water.

500-800 mOsm/kg of water

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100

Random urine osmolality range is ___-900 mOsm/kg of water.

300-900 mOsm/kg of water

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