Anatomy Lecture Exam 2

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Function of skeletal system

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Function of skeletal system

support, protection, movement, hemopoiesis, energy & mineral resevres

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Skeleton

206 bones

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axial skeleton

skull, hyoid bone, vertebral column, thoracic cage

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axial skeleton functions

supports: head, neck, trunk

protects: brain, spinal cord, thoracic organs

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appendicular skeleton

pectoral girdle, upper limbs, pelvic girdle, lower limbs

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foramen (foramina)

hole in bone (for nerves and blood vessels)

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Fossa (fossae)

depression in bone

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Process

projection from bone, narrow or wide, protrudes from surrounding bone

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Meatus

a hole or tube-like structure

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canal

a groove or tube-like structure

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cartilage tissue

support soft tissues, model for formation of bone, gliding surface at articulations

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Hyaline cartilage

Most common type of cartilage

found: end of long bones, costal cartilages, respiratory structures, fetal skeleton

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elastic cartilage

cartilage with abundant elastic fibers

very resilient and flexible

found: pinna (outer ear) and epiglottis

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FIbrocartilage

thick, dense collagen fibers, resists strong compression

found: intervertebral discs, knee joint, pubic symphysis

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Osteoblasts

build new bone

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Osteoclasts

break down bone

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osteocytes

mature bone cells

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spongy bone

inside bones, better at shock absorption

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compact bone

smooth, dense, external portion of bones strong, rigid

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Lamellae

Concentric rings made up of groups of hollow tubes of bone matrix

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osteon

structural unit of compact bone

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haversian canal

one of a network of tubes running through compact bone that contains blood vessels and nerves

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structure of long bone

Epiphysis (Ends)

Epiphyseal line (growth plate)

Diaphysis (shaft)

Compact bone (superficial)

Spongy bone (deep)

Periosteum (sheath on outside of bone)

Endosteum (lines internal cavity)

Medullary cavity (bone marrow)

Nutrient arteries (feed bone)

Articular cartilage on ends

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Flat, irregular, and short bones

-compact bone with periosteum on outside

-spongy bone with endosteum inside

-contain marrow but don't have a marrow cavity

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Bone development and growth

bones form by replacing connective tissues in the fetus; some form within sheet-like layers of connective tissue (intramembranous bones) while others replace masses of cartilage (endochondral bones)

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intramembranous ossification

bone develops from a fibrous membrane

forms many flat bones (skull), maxillae, zygomatic, mandible, and center of clavicle

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endochondral bone ossification

-Most of the bones of the skeleton form this way

1) Skeleton begins as Hyaline Cartilage model

2) Bone replaces cartilage

3) Epiphyseal (growth) plates ossify eventually

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Closure of epiphyseal plate

-cartilage is gradually replaced by bone tissue on both sides of the epiphyseal plate (primary center of ossification at diaphysis, and secondary centers of ossification in epiphyses)

-when centers of ossification meet (at epiphyseal plate), growth stops

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pectoral girdle: clavicles and scapulae

includes L & R scapulae and clavicles

scapulae do NOT join to the axial skeleton, articulation with the clavicle is very loose

attached to axial skeleton by way of associated muscles and ligaments

high flexibility, not very stable

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Clavicle

collarbone, s-shaped

sternal end attaches to the sternum, acromial end attaches to scapula

function: provides muscle attachment, acts as brace for the scapula and arms

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Scapula

posterior surface of rib cage (shoulder blade)

glenoid cavity (glenoid fossa) articulates with the humerus (= forms shoulder joint)

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supraspinous and infraspinous fossae of scapula

attachment sites for muscles

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Coracoid process of scapula

attachement point of the biceps muscle. located anteriorly

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Acromion of scapula

articulates with acromial end of clavicle. located posteriorly

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Humerus

The longest bone of the upper arm

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head of humerus

articulates with scapula at the glenoid cavity

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distal end of humerus

articulates with ulna and radius (elbow)

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greater and lesser tubercles of humerus

sites for muscle attachment

deltoid tuberosity is attachment for deltoid muscle

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fractures of humerus

Commonly occur in two places:

Surgical neck

Midshaft spiral fractures

nerves pass along both common places, can be damaged due to fractures. MAY lead to permanent upper limb dysfunction

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trochlea of humerus

articulates with trochlear notch of ulna. trochlear notch fits over trochlea to create a hinge

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Olecranon process of ulna

fits into the olecranon fossa of the humerus when forearm extends

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lateral and medial epicondyles on humerus

attachment sites for forearm muscles

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capitulum of humerus

articulates with head of radius

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Ulna and Radius

lower arm bones, connected by interosseous membrane, allows bone to stay at a fixed distance and allows rotation

proximally, radial head articulates with radial notch on ulna

distally, each has as styloid process

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forearm: pronation

radius crossed over ulna

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forearm: supination

radius parallel to ulna

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radial and ulnar styloid process

connects to the wrist by articulating with a ligament.

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wrist fractures

Typically fracture distal radius while catching yourself during a fall

"Dinner-fork " presentation

Can lead to nerve damage and dysfunction

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carpals

8 bones, 2 rows, make up wrist

Mnemonic: Straight Line To Pink, Here Comes The Thumb

L > R bottom row: Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetrum

R < L top row: Hamate, Capitate, Trapezoid, Trapezium

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metacarpals and phalanges

-5 digits, #1-5 thumb to pinky

-each digit has one metacarpal

-digits 2-5 have 3 phalangles: proximal, middle, distal

-digit 1 (pollex) has 2 phalanges: proximal and distal

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Pelvis

hip bone + sacrum + coccyx

attaches lower limbs to the trunk

less free movement

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Ossa coxae

hip bones

3 bones: ilium (elephant ear), ischium (hollow circle), pubis (bone above ischium)

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acetabulum of pelvis

A concave surface of the pelvis that articulates with the head of the femur and inserts into the pelvis to form the hip joint.

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Ilium

- crest is superior ridge of bone

- greater sciatic notch allows passage of sciatic nerve to lower limb

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Ischium

the curved bone forming the base of each half of the pelvis.

ischial tuberosities are the "sit bones"

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pubis

along with the ischium contributes to obturator foramen

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pelvic inlet

space between pelvic and abdominal cavities

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pelvic brim

edge of pelvic inlet

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pelvic outlet

Inferior opening defined by ischial tuberosities, etc. (this is the bony feature you sit on).

The size of this outlet is important for a successful birth.

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Male pelvis

somewhat narrower

pelvic inlet is more heart shaped

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female pelvis

wider and shallower

wider angle of sacrum and coccyx

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lower limbs

carries entire body weight

bones are thicker and stronger than the upper limbs

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femur

thigh bone, largest and strongest bone in the body

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femur head

smooth, rounded proximal end of the femur; articulates with acetabulum

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Femur Greater and Lesser Trochanter

sites of muscle attachments

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femur lateral and medial condyles

articulate with the tibula

are the more raised parts of these condyles

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linea aspera of femur

ridge along the posterior diaphysis of the bone

used for muscle attachement

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patellar surface of femur

patella articulates with femur here

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patella

sesamoid bone (formed w connective tissue) encolosed in the tendon on the quadriceps femoris muscles

protects knee joint and improves leverage of the quadriceps muscles

kneecap

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tibia

shin bone, medial to fibula

receives weight of body and transmits to foot

distal end is flattened for articulation with talus; medial malleolus projects to form ankle bone

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medial and lateral condyles of tibia

articulate with the condyles of the femur

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diaphysis of tibia

triangular with a sharp anterior border

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fibula

thin lateral leg bone

head on superior end, lateral malleolus in inferior end (ankle bone)

DOES NOT BEAR WEIGHT

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ankle fractures

- common in sports, skiing, running

- typically the result of rolling or twisting

- ligaments crossing the joint are often so strong that they remain intact but the bones fracture

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Foot

function: supports body weight, acts as a lever for moving the body

7 tarsal bones

5 metatarsals

14 phalanges

hallux = big toe

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Tarsals

ankle bones, 7

talus articulates with tibia and fibula superiorly and calcaneus inferiorly

calcaneus is the heel. achilles tendon attaches to posterior surface, allows extension of foot

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metatarsals and phalanges

bones of the forefoot, 5

1st at base of big toe, largest, helps support weight of body

3 phalanges for each digit 2-5, ordered proximal, middle, distal

hallux (big toe) doesn't have middle phalanx

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Arches of foot

medial longitudinal, lateral longitudinal, transverse

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joints

support and movement

bones articulate at joints

skeletal muscles CROSS over joints in order to achieve movement

more mobile = less stable

classified by function OR structure

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fibrous joints

consists of inflexible layers of dense connective tissue, holds the bones tightly together

immovable

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cartilaginous joints

bones held together by cartilage

slightly moveable usually

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Synovial joints

connected at a joint cavity within a capsule

freely movable usually

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synchondrosis joint

A type of cartilaginous joint

bones joined by hyaline cartilage

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symphyses joint

type of cartilaginous joint

fibrocartilage between articulating bones

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synovial joints

freely movable joints that contain a fluid-filled joint capsule

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typical synovial joints

Articular (fibrous) capsule -2 parts: outer fibrous layer continuous with periosteum, inner synovial membrane that secretes synovial fluid.

Joint (articular) cavity - space filled with synovial fluid

Synovial fluid - liquid in joint cavity and cartilages. Provides lubrication.

Articular (hyaline) cartilage - absorbs forces on the joint, protects bone

Ligaments- Connect bone to bone, strengthen joint. Can be internal or external to articular capsule.

Joints do have a blood supply and they are innervated too!

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bursae

saclike structure with synovial fluid, reduce friction

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tendon sheaths

wraps around tendon

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plane joint

allows only gliding movement of bones

ex: carpal and tarsal bones

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hinge joints

allows flexion and extension

ex: elbow joints, interphalangeal joints, knee joints

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pivot joints

allows rotation

ex: proximal radioulnar joints, atlantoaxial joint

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condylar joints

one bone has a convex surface, the other bone has a concave surface

found in the metacarpophalangel joints

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ball and socket joints

very flexible; allows flexion/extension & adduction/abduction & rotation

ex: shoulder joints, hip joints

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The knee

largest and most complex joint

usually acts as a hinge, can rotate slightly

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condylar joint lateral/medial

acts as hinge joint

both femur and tibia have 2 condylar surfaces

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Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL)

connects femur to fibula

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Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL)

connects tibia and femur

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Anteior Cranial Fossa

deep within capsule and cross, so called cruciate ligaments

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Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL)

deep within capsule and cross, so called cruciate ligaments

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menisici of the knee

made of fibrocartilage, helps even out the weight distribution and stabilize the joint. prevent side-to side rocking of the femur on the tibia

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