Global Foundations of Art - Montclair State University VIST 105

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Altamira Cave

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Art History

119 Terms

1

Altamira Cave

A cave in northern Spain where prehistoric paintings were discovered in 1879. The paintings are believed to be 25,000 - 35,000 years old.

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2

Composite profile

An artistic technique that shows both the side of the face and the front of the body

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3

Lascaux Cave

A cave discovered in 1940 and containing exceptionally fine Paleolithic wall paintings and engravings

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4

Includes paintings of bison, horses, and handprints

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Chauvet Cave

The earliest known painted cave, dated to between 38,000 and 33,000 years ago. (Now thought to be 15,000-13,000 BCE) It is located in France.

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6

Çatalhöyük

An important Neolithic site in what is now Turkey.

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7

First example of what is thought home decor since people were living there permanently

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8

Stonehenge

A structure found by scientist in England is believed to have been built in the Neolithic Age and Bronze Age

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9

Mesopotamia

A region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers that developed the first urban societies.

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10

In the Bronze Age this area included Sumer and the Akkadian, Babylonian and Assyrian empires

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11

In the Iron Age, it was ruled by the Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian empires

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12

Ancient Egypt

Ancient civilization located primarily along the Nile River.

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13

Ka

In ancient Egypt, the immortal human life force.

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14

Horus

Egyptian falcon-headed solar god

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15

Pharaoh

A ruler of ancient Egypt

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16

Nemes

In ancient Egypt, the linen headdress worn by the pharaoh, with the uraeus cobra of kingship on the front.

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17

King Narmer

The first king of the two lands wearing the White Crown of Upper Egypt and the Red crown of Lower Egypt.

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18

Hieroglyphics

An ancient Egyptian writing system in which pictures were used to represent ideas and sounds

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19

Palette

Stone used to grind material to make makeup.

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20

Registers (Bands)

One of a series of superimposed bands or friezes in a pictorial narrative, or the particular levels on which motifs are placed

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21

Naram-Sin

The Akkadian ruler who claimed to be divine and had a temple built for him

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22

Hierarchical Composition

Composition arranged according to order/rank of power/importance

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23

Canopic Jars

Jars in which the ancient Egyptians preserved the internal organs of a deceased person usually for burial with the mummy.

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24

Duamutef (Jackal)

Stomach Canopic Jar

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25

Qebehsenuef (Falcon)

Intestines Canopic Jar

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26

Hapi (Baboon)

Lungs Canopic Jar

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27

Imseti (Human)

Liver Canopic Jar

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28

Ziggurat

A rectangular tiered temple or terraced mound erected by the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians

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29

Imhotep

Name of the architect who designed the Step Pyramid

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30

Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure

The three outstanding monarchs of the Old Kingdom of Ancient Egypt

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31

All have their own respective pyramids

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32

Crete

A Greek island in the Mediterranean Sea, southeast of Greece

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33

Mycenae

Site of a fortified palace complex in southern Greece that controlled a Late Bronze Age kingdom. In Homer's epic poems Mycenae was the base of King Agamemnon, who commanded the Greeks besieging Troy.

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34

Greek Humanism

Greeks begin studying the human body in a way to create more anatomically correct features than previously

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35

Hellenism

the diffusion of Greek culture throughout the Mediterranean world after the conquest of Alexander the Great

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36

Peripteral

Having a single row of pillars on all sides in the style of the temples of ancient Greece

Columns surround exterior of temple

Temples have cell as where statues of gods stand

Emphasis on proportions

<p>Having a single row of pillars on all sides in the style of the temples of ancient Greece</p><p>Columns surround exterior of temple</p><p>Temples have cell as where statues of gods stand</p><p>Emphasis on proportions</p>
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37

Early Classicism

480-450 BCE

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38

Opens with sack of acropolis of Athens by Persians in 480

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39

Acropolis retaken 479

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40

Marks the abandonment of rigid and unnatural poses in statues/art.

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41

Contrapposto

An asymmetrical arrangement of the human figure in which the line of the arms and shoulders contrasts with while balancing those of the hips and legs

“Counter pose”

Body is always in a system of balance

First known example is Kritios Boy

<p>An asymmetrical arrangement of the human figure in which the line of the arms and shoulders contrasts with while balancing those of the hips and legs</p><p>“Counter pose”</p><p>Body is always in a system of balance</p><p>First known example is Kritios Boy</p>
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42

High Classicism

450-400 BCE

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43

Athenians rebuild the acropolis after 447 under Pericles' leadership and the artistic direction of Phidias using the Delian League's funds

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44

Parthenon

A temple dedicated to the goddess Athena

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45

Delian League

An alliance headed by Athens that says that all Greek city-states will come together and help fight the Persians

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46

Policles

Greek sculptor

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47

Late Classicism

400-323 BCE

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48

Follows the peloponnesian war which ended 404

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49

Reign of alexander the great closes the age (336-323 bc)

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50

Hellenistic Age

323-30 BCE

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51

Approximately from the death of Alexander to the death of Cleopatra, when Egypt became a province of rome

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52

Relief Sculpture

Sculpture that projects from a flat background

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53

Sculpture in the round

Freestanding figures, carved or modeled in three dimensions.

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54

Triglyphs and Metopes

In doric architecture, the alternating elements of the frieze

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55

Acropolis

A fortified hilltop in an ancient Greek city

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56

Propylaia

A monumental entranceway to a sacred enclosure

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57

Pinakotheke

Greek "picture gallery"; ancient building for the display of paintings on wood panels

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58

Erechtheion

an ancient Greek temple on the north side of the Acropolis of Athens in Greece which was dedicated to both Athena and Poseidon.

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59

Temple of Athena Nike

Kalikrates. Ionic temple that Greets visitors to the sanctuary. Celebrates Athena as bringer of victory against the Persians at marathon. The young Nike's Image is repeated dozens of times. 427-424 BCE

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60

Kallikrates

Greek architect who constructed the Temple of Athena Nike and co-created the Parthenon

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61

Delian League

an alliance headed by Athens that says that all Greek city-states will come together and help fight the Persians

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62

Peloponnesian War

(431-404 BCE) The war between Athens and Sparta that in which Sparta won, but left Greece as a whole weak and ready to fall to its neighbors to the north.

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63

Praxiteles

Ancient Greek sculptor (circa 370-330 BC), a sculptor who lived after Phidias who sculpted figures that were more lifelike and natural in form and size.

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64

Epigonos

Possible pioneer of the Hellenistic Baroque style (works: Gallic chieftain killing himself and his wife, Dying Gaul)

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65

Athanadoros, Hagesandros, and Polydoros of Rhodes

Laocoon and his sons

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66

Stupas

Buddhist shrines

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67

Atruscans

The leaders of the Italian peninsula

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68

Pompeii

Roman city near Naples, Italy, which was buried during an eruption of Mount Vesuvius in A.D. 79.

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69

Villas

large country homes owned by upper-class Roman families

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70

Secco-fresco

Painting on dry plaster

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71

Allows for more intense color saturation, finer details

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72

Less durable, flakes

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73

Hatshepsut

First female pharaoh who expanded Egypt through trade

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74

Cleopatra

Last pharaoh of Egypt; had relationships with Julius Caesar and Marc Antony; Octavian's enemy

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75

Augustus

(63 BCE - 14 CE) First emperor of Rome (27 BCE - 14 CE) He restored order and prosperity to the Empire after nearly a century of turmoil. Grandnephew to Julius Caesar.

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76

First Roman Emperor

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77

Inaugurates tradition of optically convincing porturateture

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78

Virgil's Aeneid

This poem commissioned by Augustus focuses on Aeneas' journey from burning Troy, crossing the Mediterranean, making his way inland to Italy, and finding Rome.

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79

Cupid/Eros

God of love; son of Venus

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80

Aphrodite/Venus

Goddess of love and beauty

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81

Monarchy and Republic (Rome)

753-27 BCE

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82

Romulus and remus "found" Rome 753

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83

Republic established 509

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84

Early Empire Roman

27 BCE - 96 AD

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85

Augustus, the first emperor, reigns 27 BCE - 14 AD

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86

Second Style Wall Painting

The style of Roman mural painting in which the aim was to dissolve the confining walls of a room and replace them with the illusion of a three-dimensional world constructed in the artist's imagination.

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87

Pigments mind chemically with plaster as it dries.

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88

Expensive and time consuming

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89

Relatively durable

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90

Villas are enclosed, less erosion, sophisticated paintings (perspectival recession)

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91

2D surface seems to recede convincingly

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92

Buon-Fresco

Painting on wet plaster

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93

Pigments mind chemically with plaster as it dries.

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94

Expensive and time consuming

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95

Relatively durable

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96

Villas are enclosed, less erosion, sophisticated paintings (perspectival recession)

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97

2D surface seems to recede convincingly

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98

Polycles

An ancient Greek sculptor who flourished about the 156th Olympiad (155 BC)

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99

Used money to rebuild temples at the Acropolis

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100

Woman of Willendorf

  • Description: Small limestone figurine of a female with exaggerated features

  • Size: Approximately 4.4 inches tall

  • Features: Large breasts, rounded belly, wide hips, no facial features

<p></p><ul><li><p>Description: Small limestone figurine of a female with exaggerated features</p></li><li><p>Size: Approximately 4.4 inches tall</p></li><li><p>Features: Large breasts, rounded belly, wide hips, no facial features</p></li></ul>
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