POL 101 Exam 1

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Politics

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134 Terms

1

Politics

“who gets what, when, and how”

A way of determining, without recourse or violence, who gets what power and resources in society, and how they get them

Because we cannot always get our way, this system exists

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2

Power

The ability to get other people to do what they want them to do

  • government jobs

  • public policies working in one’s advantage

  • tax revenues

  • laws that help get one’s way

Legitimacy, authority, and divine rights of kings

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3

Media

A major political resource that helps people to gain and maintain power through controlling information about politics, affecting our views.

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4

Social Order

The way we organize and live our collective lives

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5

Government

by contrast to politics, it’s a system or organization for exercising authority over a body of people

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6

Authority

Power that is recognized as legitimate, or right

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7

Legitimate

Accepted as “right” or proper

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8

American Government

The Constitution and the institutions set up by the Constitution for the exercise of authority by the American people, over the American people.

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9

Rules

Directives that specify how resources will be distributed or what procedures govern collective activity

In short, they determine how we try to get the things we want with framework for us to solve without violence or problems.

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10

Norms

Informal, unwritten expectations that guide behavior and support formal rule systems; often most noticeable when broken

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11

Institutions

Organizations in which government power is exercised

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12

Political Narrative

A persuasive story about the nature of power, who should have it, and how it should be used

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13

Gatekeepers

Journalists and the media elite who determine which news stories are covered and which are not

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14

Economics

Production and distribution of a society’s material resources and services

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15

Socialist Economy

An economic system in which the state determines production, distribution, and price decisions, and property is government owned

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16

Substantive Guarantees

Government assurance of particular outcomes or results

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17

Procedural Guarantees

Government assurance that the rules will work smoothly and treat everyone fairly, with no promise of particular outcomes.

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18

Capitalist eeconmony

An economic system in which the market determines production, distribution, and price decisions, and property is privately owned

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19

Laissez-faire captialism

An economic system in which the market makes all decisions and the government plays no role

In French means “let people do what they wish”

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20

Mixed Economics

Economic systems based on modified forms of capitalism tempered by substantive values

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21

Democratic socialism

A mixed economy that combines socialist ideals with a commitment to democracy and market capitalism, keeping socialism as its goal

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22

Social Democracy

A mixed economy that uses the democratic process to bend capitalism toward socialist goals (like more equality).

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23

Capitalism

A procedural economic system based on the freedom working of the market--the process of supply and demand

  • Capitalism not regulated becomes very chaotic, making the rich, richer, and poor, poorer.

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24

Regulated Capitalism

A market system in which the government intervenes to protect rights

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25

Authoritarian governments

Systems in which the state holds all power over the social order

These leaders often use punishment to coerce uncooperative subjects into obedience.

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26

Totalitarian

A system in which absolute power is exercised over every aspect of life

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27

Authoritarian Capitalism

A system in which the state allows people economic freedom but maintains stringent social regulations to limit noneconomic behavior

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28

Anarchy

The absence of government and law

People advocate this because they value the freedom to do whatever they want more than they value the order and security that government proves by forbidding regulating certain kinds of behavior.

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29

Democracy

Government that vests power in the people

Comes from Greek word demos meaning “people”

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30

Popular Sovereignty

The concept that the citizens are the ultimate source of political power

The central idea here is that no government is considered legitimate unless the governed consent to it, and people are not truly free unless they live under a law of their own making.

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31

Advanced Industrial Democracy

A system in which a democratic government allows citizens a considerable amount of personal freedom and maintains a free-market (though still usually regulated) economy

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32

Communist Democracy

A utopian system in which property is communally owned and all decisions are made democratically

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33

Populism

Social movements based on the ideas that power has even concentrated illegitimately among elites at the people’s expense

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34

Subjects

Individuals who are obliged to submit to a government authority against which they have no rights

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35

Citizens

Members of a political community with both rights and responsibilities

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36

Divine Right of Kings

The principle that earthly rulers receive their authority from God

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37

Classical Liberalism

A political ideology dating from the seventeenth century emphasizing individual rights over the power of the state

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38

Social Contract

The notion that society is based on an agreement between government and the governed in which people agree to give up some rights in exchange for the protection of others

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39

Republic

A government in which decisions are made through representatives of the people

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40

Digital Native

An individual born after the advent of digitall technology who is proficient in and dependent on its use

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41

Mediated Citizens

Those for whom most personal and commercial relationships, access to information about the world and recreational or professional activities, and communication with others passes through third-party channels, which may or may not modify or censor that information

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42

Public-Interested citizenship

A view of citizenship focused on action to realize the common good

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43

Declaration of Independence

Narrative of rights of America: telling a story about how the British violated those rights and was designed to combat the British narrative that America should remain part of its colonial empire

The political document that dissolved the colonial ties between the United States and Britain

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44

Self-Interested Citizenship

A view of citizenship focused on action to realize an individual citizen’s interest

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45

Hashtag Activism

A form of political engagement that occurs by organizing individuals online around a particular issue

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46

Information Bubble

A closed cycle, sometimes self-created, in which all the information we get reinforces the information we already have, solidifying our beliefs without reference to outside reality checks

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47

Identity Politics

The assertion of power, or discrimination, by a group--or an appeal for support to a group--based on their common perception of who they are

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48

Immigrants

Citizens or subjects of one country who move to another country to live or work

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49

Naturalization

The legal process of acquiring citizenship for someone who has not acquired it by birth

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50

Asylum

Protectin or sanctuary, especially from political persecution

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51

Refugees

Individuals who flee an area or a country because of persecution on the basis of race, nationality, religion, group membership, or political opinion

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52

Nativism

The belief that the needs of citizens ought to be met before those of immigrants.

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53

Political Culture

The broad pattern of ideas, beliefs, and values that a population holds about its citizens and government

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54

Values

The central ideas, principles, or standards that most people agree are important

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55

Normative

A term used to describe beliefs or values about how things should be or what people ought to do rather than what actually is

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56

Procedural guarantees

Government assurance that the rules will work smoothly and treat everyone fairly, with no promise of particular outcomes

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57

Individualism

The belief that what is good for society is based on what is good for individuals

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58

Ideologies

Set of beliefs about politics and society that help people make sense of their world

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59

Conservatives

People who generally favor limited government and are cautious about change

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60

Liberals

People who generally favor government action and view change as progress

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61

Economic conservatives

Those who favor a strictly procedural government roles in the economy and the social order

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62

Libertarians

Those who favor a minimal government role in any sphere

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63

Economic liberals

Those who favor an expanded government role in the economy but a limited role in the social order

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64

Social conservatives

Those wo endorse limited government control of the economy but considerable government intervention to realize a traditional social order; based on religious values and hierarchy rather than equality.

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65

Political correctness

The idea that language shapes behavior and therefore should be regulated to control its social effects

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66

Social liberals

Those who favor greater control of the economy and the social order to bring about greater equality and to regulate the effects of progress

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67

Progressives

A contested concept that social liberals use to refer to a philosophy demanding radical structural change to create more equality

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68

Communitarians

Those who favor a strong, substantive government role in the economy and the social order so that their vision of a community of equals may be realized

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69

Authoritarian populism

A radical right-wing movement that appeals to popular discontent but whose underlying values are not democractic

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70

Slavery

The ownership, for forced labor, of one people by another

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71

Racism

The belief that one race is superior to another

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72

French and Indian War

A war fought between France and England, and allied Native Americans, from 1754 to 1763; resulted in France’s expulsion from the New World

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73

Popular sovereignty

The concept that the citizens are the ultimate source of political power

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74

Common Sense

The pamphlet written by Thomas Pain in 1776 that persuaded many Americans to support the revolutionary cause

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75

Constitution

The rules that establish a government

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76

Articles of Confederation

The first constitution of the United States (1777) creating an association of states with weak central government

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77

Confederation

A government in which independent states unite for common purpose but retain their own sovereignty

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78

Popular Tyranny

The unrestrained power of the people

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79

Shay's Rebellion

A grassroots uprising (1787) by armed Massachusetts farmers protesting foreclosures

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80

Constitutional Convention

The assembly of fifty-five delegates in the summer of 1787 to recast te Articles of Confederation; the result was the U.S. Constitution

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81

Federalism

A political system in which power is divided between he central and regional units

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82

Federalists

Supporters of the Constitution who favored a strong central government

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83

Anti-Federalists

Advocatees of states' right who opposed the Constitution

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84

Virginia Plan

A proposal at the Constitutional Convention that congressional representation be based on population, thus favoring the large states

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85

New Jersey Plan

A proposal at the Constitutional Convention that congressional representation be equal, thus favoring the small states

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86

Great Compromise

The constitutional solution to congressional representation: equal votes win the Senate, votes by population in the House

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87

Three-Fifths Compromise

The formula for counting five enslaved people as three people for purposes of representation, which reconciled northern and souther factions at the Constitutional Convention

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88

Ratification

The process through which a proposal is formally approved and adopted by vote

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89

The Federalist Papers

A series of essays written to build support for ratification of the Constitution

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90

Factions

Groups of citizens united by some common passion of interest and opposed to the rights of other citizens or to the interests of the whole community

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91

Bill of Rights

A summary of citizens rights guaranteed and protected by a government; added to the Constitution as its first ten amendments in order to achieve ratification

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92

Legislature

The body of government that makes laws

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93

Bicameral legislature

A legislature with two chambers

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94

Republic

A government in which decisions are made through representatives of the people

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95

Unicameral legislature

A legislature with one chamber

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96

Executive

The branch of government responsible for putting laws into effect

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97

Electoral College

An intermediary body that elects the president

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98

Presidential system

Government in which the executive is chosen independently of the legislature and the two branches are separate

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99

Parliamentary system

Government in which the executive is chosen by the legislature from among its members and the two branches are merged

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100

Judicial power

The power to interpret laws and judge whether a law has been broken

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