HISTORY

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1st Crusade

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1st Crusade

Date - 1069-1099; Origin - French set out to take back the Holy Land; Pope Urban II called for French forces to aid the Byzantines in their war against the Seljuk Turks, promised that all who die had remission of sins

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1st Triumvirate

Julius Caesar, Pompey, Crassus

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2nd Crusade

Date - 1147-1149; Origin - loss of Latin Crusader Kingdom; Participants - French + German forces;Outcome - complete failure, lose

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2nd Triumvirate

Octavian, Antony, Lepidus

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3rd Crusade

Date - 1189-1192

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4th Crusade

Date - 1202-1204

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Outcome - conquered Constantinople until 1261, more tension w/ E. Orthodox Church + Catholic Church, aborted attempt

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5 Dynasties and 10 Kingdoms

brief period of disunion; kingdoms would rapidly rise and fall

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9

8

How many times a day did Monks and Nuns go to church?

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610 AD

Muhammad has a vision in a cave

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612 AD

began preaching

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622 AD

persecution of Muhammad made him flee from Mecca to Yathrib

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630 AD

Muhammad conquers Mecca

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661 AD

when was the 1st sunni led caliphate

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700s

Conflict arose between the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church in the

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1054

The church officially split in

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1215

When were English nobles forced King John to sign it?

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1492

Finally succeeded in

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ablution

act of cleansing

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Abu Bakr

Muhammad's father-in-law, the first caliph

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Aeneas

formed alliance with latins, descendants become rulers

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Aeneas

Legendary Roman hero, the Romans trace their history back to him. He was a Trojan hero who left Troy after the Trojan War, eventually settling in Italy

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Ali

Muhammad's son in law, assassinated

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All Holy Roman Emperors:

"defender" of Catholicism, Most important Christian king, Could appoint bishops and other church officials

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Alms (3)

Zakat

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Almsgiving

charitable donations (2.5%)

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Antononus Pius

Promoted art and science, construction of public works, legal reform, and new provision for orphans

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approved it

less fortunate, poor people, and people w/o clans reaction to Mecca

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29

Arminius/Hermann

German tribal leader who inflicted a major defeat on Rome by destroying three legions under Publius Quinctilius Varus in the Teutoburg Forest

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Assemblies

ran city of Rome, Patricians + Plebeians

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Barter

What is the usual form of exchange in Manorialism?

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Battle of Pharsalus

Caesar defeats Pompey, marked the End of Roman Republic

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Bazaar

literally, "covered market", it was an important trading center in every Muslim city

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Beowulf

An Anglo-Saxon epic poem written in Old English sometime between 8th and 11th centuries, Earliest known work in Old English; first work in the English vernacular

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Bishop

Above a Priest was a

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Bubonic Plague

example of black death

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Bushido

the way of the warrior

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Caligula

Part of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, reigned 37 AD- AD 41, great nephew of Tiberius

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Caliph

religious leader

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Canterbury Tales

a series of stories told by 20 pilgrims as they traveled to Canterbury, Written in the vernacular (middle English at the time), Social commentary on the church and England

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Carthage

former Phoenicians colony

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42

Cato ("the Elder")

Was a Roman soldier, senator, and historian known for his conservatism and opposition to Hellenization. He was the first to write history in Latin

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Cato ("the Younger")

Great-grandson of Cato (the elder). Opposes the Law (to weaken Caesar) and is arrested

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Charlemagne

the first Holy Roman Emperor, Joined German, Christian, and Roman elements

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Charles Martel

Frankish military leader and statesman, defeated Muslim forces at the Battle of Tours

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Checks and Balances

keeps government from getting too strong

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Chivalry

code of honor, loyalty, and duty

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Cicero

Consul, tries to get rid of corruption in Senate and fails

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Cincinnatus

dictator even though he was a farmer

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Cincinnatus

One of Rome's most famous dictators became consul even though he was a farmer

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Civic Duty

assembly meetings and voting

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Civil War

Julia and child die, no more family tie between Caesar and Pompey, Battle of Pharsalus

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Claudius

Part of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, reigned 41AD- AD 54, Uncle of Caligula

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Cleopatra/Caesarion

Cleopatra had a son with Caesar and they named it Caesarion. Caesars only known biological son.

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Clergy

church officials

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Constantine (vs Maxentius)

Roman emperor after Diocletian that reunited the halves of the Roman Empire for a short time. Rises to power and was proclaimed Emperor after his father's death.

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Consuls

elected magistrates yearly, most powerful

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Convents

a community of Nuns

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Convents

provided many of the same services as monasteries, Hospitality to travellers and Helping the needy

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Crassus

Is the wealthiest man in Rome, and backs Caesar financially. Part of the First Triumvirate.

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Crassus

richest man in rome, and was part of the 1st Triumvirate

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Daimyo

The head of a noble (aristocratic) family

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Diocese or Bishopric

The Bishop led a

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Diocletian (vs Maximian)

Roman emperor, he divided the Roman Empire into eastern and western halves. Ruled the east and gave the western half to Maximian.

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disapproved because they feared their money would be redistributed

Rich people's reaction to Mecca

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Dominic de Guzman

a Spanish priest dedicated to defending Church teachings against heresy (the denial of basic Church doctrines)

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Dominic de Guzman

Who started Dominican Order?

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Dowry

a gift of money or property paid at the time of marriage

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Eid Mubarak

End of the Ramadan holiday

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Empress Wu

only female leader in Chinese history (Tang Dynasty)

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England

∧ in parliament's power;∨ in King's power

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Etruscans

people who lived North of Rome

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European Feudalism

was a political system based on loyalty, land, and service, Similar to Japanese Feudalism

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Explain the Crisis of the 3rd Century and how the Empire split

Internal warfare, emperors proclaimed by troops, multiple "empires"

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Fasting (Sawm) (4)

During Ramadan(a holy month),

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Feudalism

A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty, land holding, and military service.

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Forum

center of life

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France

∧ noble's support of the King's power

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Friars

called to live and work among the people, unlike monks, Not monastic, Similar oaths to monks, Dedicated to serving others

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Gaius Cassius Longinus

Roman senator and general best known as a leading instigator of the plot to assassinate Julius Caesar on 15 March 44 BC

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Gaius Julius Caesar

Roman general, he was one of the greatest military leaders in history. He conquered most of Gaul and was named dictator for life, but was later murdered by a group of senators

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Gaius Marius

Encouraged poor people to join the army, soldiers were loyal, great political power

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Gaius Marius

Marius was a good general and his troops were more loyal to him than they were to Rome. Had great political power, and was also a consul.

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Gallic Wars

Caesar led Rome to win

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Gauis Gracchus

Tiberius's brother, sold food cheaply to poor, killed by a slave

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Genghis Khan

Unified the Mongols

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Genghis Khan meaning

universal ruler

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Germanic Law

based on blood, family, and revenge

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Gnaeus Pompeius "Magnus" (Pompey the Great)

Roman general, Consul 3 times, Rome's premier military hero, member of 1st Triumvirate

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God

Allah

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God is Great

al akhbar

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God's last Revelation

Qur'an meaning

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Gothic Architecture

Served as symbols of the glory and majesty of faith and the church

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Large stained glass windows

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High vaulted ceilings

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Pointed Arches

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Grand Vizier

chief minister to the Sultan. Led council meetings and the main portion of the state affairs. Closely instructed by the Sultan

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Gunpowder Empire

Muslim empires that conquered and controlled because of their mastery of firearms

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habeus corpus

prisoners could not be held without due cause

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Hadrian

Constructed Hadrian's Wall in Britain; erected many fine buildings, codified Roman law

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