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henry vi of france

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henry vi of france

bringing kingdom back to where it was, made gov monopolies of salt for income, limited power of french nobility, assassinated

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louis xiii

9-yr old son, needed strong minister, cardinal richeliu

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cardinal richeliu

took away huguenot rights from Edict of Nantes, entered france into 30 years war on protestant side against habsurbgs (reason d’etat)

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louis xiv

mother, anne of austria selected cardinal mazarin; didn’t want minister to rule bc of rebellions in “name of the king”; advocated for divine rights, built palace of versailles to dominate french nobility

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the fronde

series of rebellions under Mazarin

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jean baptiste colbert

louis xiv’s most important finance minister; centralized french economy, mercantilism, est. Five Great Farms → regions w/o tariffs or customs

wanted empire like Dutch, est. French East India Company

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religious unity in france

let louis xiv be absolutist monarch, Huguenots got fewer rights; revoke Edict of Nantes → weakened France (huguenots were important to economy, then they left)

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louis xiv’s wars

loved conquering territory, ended when england replaced james → william of orange

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war of spanish succession

ended w. Treaty of Utrecht → bourbon on throne of spain

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elizabeth I died

james of scotland became king

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king james

couldn’t deal w. parl power in england, used to strong monarchy

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religion in england under james

puritans were a big pain

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charles i

son of james, william laude as archbishop of canterbury

governed w/o parliament, extended collection of ship money for funds by declaring emergency, even for inland regions

insisted that calvinist scotland give into church of england → riot, forced to call parl to give him money → invaded N england until he payed

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short parliament

met to deal w. money for scot rebels, 3 weeks

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long parliament

to deal w. money for settlement w. scots (20 years), replace ministers → charles tried seizing leaders, but failed → start of english civil war

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english civil war

at first, bad for parliament → cromwell replaced aristocratic leaders w. New Model Army (disciplined Puritan soldiers)

1648, defeated king → executed him (crazy decision)

est. “republic” of Commonwealth (really a military dictatorship)

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thomas cromwell

had a tough time deal with parliament, tried using army to disperse it → gave up on ruling w. parliament

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instrument of government

made head of state → lord protector; only written constitution in English history

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charles ii

replaces cromwell, eldest son of charles i

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james ii

replaced charles ii; passed a lot of reforms, created religious unity

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amsterdam

became center of commerce in N europe; had really good tech (cargo ships)

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bank of amsterdam

issued own currency, made the banking capital

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Dutch East India Co

shared profits among a lot of different people (like stocks), good at business

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dutch golden age

high standard of living, equal distribution of wealth, religious tolerance

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dutch gov

decentralized, autonomy to provinces; executive power came from Noble house of Orange (led revolt against spain)

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baroque

showed in netherlands thru catholic flanders; Franz Hals (portrait), Jan Vermeer (everyday dutch life), Rembrandt van Rijn (influenced by high baroque, more emotional complexity)

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economic expansion and population growth

end of 15th c, sharp contrast to 14th c.; france 2x population bc of econ productivity

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price revolution

increase in prices, inflation (initially thought bc of metals from New World, actually bc of population growth)

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rural life + economic classes

emergence of wealthy individuals (bourgeouis) known as gentry, rural poverty became worse (small farmers kept losing land)

e eur → low population density, create “serfs” (binding free peasants to land)

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farm life

no protecting housing (wood, mud, straw, no adequate ventilation);

long work days during summer, winter was terrifying bc they might not have crops til spring → crop rotation

monotonous diet

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life in cities and towns

had better lives; better housing, diet

lots of urban poverty → guilds

things produced on a much larger scale

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family life and structure

no more than 3-4 kids bc later marriages (either arranged or formally approved)

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men in family (wealthy)

father insured wealth, oldest male child inherits most of the estate (primogeniture)

younger sons go to gov, church, military, etc

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men in poorer family

boys work as apprecentices, servants, etc

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role of women

only got dowry (what they receive upon marriage), managed by husbands during life

poor → raise own dowry, work as domestic servants

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family as economic unit

child labor was normal, jobs were gendered (men → plowing, women → house stuff)

agricultural → everyone must work for harvest

women did all of men’s work + house stuff

lower classes are more egalitarian (can’t afford “idle women”) + got pregnant less

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protestant reformation + family

household is center of life, not church

increased paternalism (liasion btwn family and god), inforced hard work, moral standards

women can’t be nuns if they don’t want kids, but more free (can directly communicate to god), can’t have active role in church

divorce allowed in some places

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buildup to scientific revolution

new world led to new interest in stuff (animals, stars bc portugese navigators, etc)

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printing press

spread scientific knowledge super fast; thomas hobbes knew all the stuff from italy sitting in england

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pre-scientific world view

scholasticism (christian theology + sci beliefs) by thomas aquinas (aristotle + teachings of church)

god’s word = supreme act of learning

science is better understanding of god

four elements (fire, water, earth, air) → alchemy (also used in medicine)

four humors → phlegm, blood, yellow bile, black bile

accepted geocentric system (went along w. christian teachings)

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copernican revolution

heliocentrism, all the planets go around it; afraid of getting persecuted, published right before he died (dedicated to pope paul iii)

super moderate language

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galileo

built on work of copernicus

used spyglass to create telescope and see planets → moon has craters like the earth (evidence of similar composition, not necessarily pure substance)

stars were farther away than planets

heavier weights fall same as lighter weights

earth is in perpetual motion

Cath church condemned his work, house arrest, etc

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sir isaac newton

solve problems btwn new theories

gravity kept planets in elliptical orbit

extremely religious, making alchemist and biblical calculations

introduce study of light, founded differential calculus, head of british scientific organization

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sci rev + philosophy

francis bacon: scientific method (necessary to examine evidence rather than rely on tradition) → inductive reasoning/empiricism

renee descartes: anti-bacon; liked deductive thought/rationalism (general → specific principle using reasoning, better understanding of universe)

  • 2 elements: mind (soul and spirit) and matter (infinite number of particles)

everything should be doubted → cartesian doubt (methodical skepticism of descartes)

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Blaise Pascal

find balance between religion and science

pascal’s wager: better to choose to believe bc it gives you hope

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thomas hobbes

life without government is nasty, brutish, and short

human nature = depraved, we need absolutism/authoritarianism

readily accepted cromwell’s beliefs after english civil war

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john locke

2 treatises: defense of revolution

humans are free and rational entities

social contract with the state → maintain inalienable rights (can rebel)

shouldn’t spread christianity through force (colonies)

mind is blank state at birth, all knowledge comes from experience

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emmanuel kant

necessary for people to stop accepting traditions of the past, use own reason and rationality to find answers → ultimate reward is freedom

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philosophes

thinkers of the age, met at salons, had informal discussion organized by wealthy women

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early enlightenment

influence by sci rev, great britain

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voltaire and david hume

challenged religion

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adam smith

economics

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john jacques rousseau

rational + emotional

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russia, prussia, austria

tried being absolutist and applying enlig principles

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voltaire

trip to england changed his life bc freedoms, honor 2 newton; allowed individual to be happy

hated catholic church (narrow-minded and bigoted)

deist: believe god created universe and let it do its own thing thru science

religion crushed human spirit

became intellectual celebrity after being involved in Calas Affair

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montasquieu

wrote ‘spirit of the laws’

inspired by england’s political system (thought the brit had separation of power, wrote abt checks and balances)

wanted to place limits on royal absolutism

heavily critiqued native france thru satire

anti-slavery (against natural law)

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diderot

“encyclopedia” → all knowledge presented and organized in scientific manner

  • lot of respect for ppl who work w their hands, tools

  • important for spreading enlightment ideas beyond france

  • attacked by censors (france → monarchy, italy → religion)

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Jean-Jacques Rousseau

most radical of philosophes, believed in direct democracy instead of constitutional monarchy

inspired french rev

social contract: focus on making entire community better rather than individual (general will > indiv, must surrender to the will of public)

set the stage for romantic mvmt w. novel emile (diff btwn kids and adults)

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spread of enlightenment thought

germany: emmanuel kent → romantic artist

italy: cessare beccaria → due process (anti-torture and capital punishment)

scotland: david hume → like deism, atheism; cast doubt on religion (no solid evidence to prove these miracles happened)

adam smith → laissez faire, leave economy alone

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women in the enlightenment

owned salons, faciliated discussions

kept philosophes out of gov trouble, v. helpful but philosophes didn’t care abt them

work wouldn’t not have reached w.o women

montasquieu criticized treatment of women v. rousseau said they shouldn’t be educated

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mary wollstonecraft

give women a good education

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enlightened despots

cath the great, joseph 2 of austria, frederick 2 of prussia; enlightened absolutists

use to enhance own power of the state at the expense of enlightenment elements (nobility, church)

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prussia

poor german state bc of invading armies during 30 years war

treaty of Westphalia → got a lot of territory + less threat from ottomans

est. serfdom (agr and labor shortage), help from junkers

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junkers

prussian nobility

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Frederick william the great elector

one of electors of HRE

chunks of land without natural borders, built an army

junkers gave him money for his army and he gave them control over serfs (monarchy getting along with nobility)

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frederick III

good army, expanded territory, good civil system → became king frederick 1

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frederick the great

rise of prussia under him

enlightened absolutists (fascinated by ideals from france) → est. beautiful intellectual center in his palace (voltaire lived there)

participated in writing philosophical tracks

freed serfs (upset nobility), didn’t free the ones living on private estates

limited corporal punishment on serfs

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austria

better series of reforms inspired by enlig under maria theresa

son, joseph ii like the idea (reduce the power of catholic church) → issued edicts of toleration giving freedom of worship

didn’t have equal civil liberties among protestants, jews

made nobles pay taxes, abolished serfdom

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leopold II

brother of joseph II, had to pull back on reforms bc of noble and peasant riots

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rulers of prussia and austria

constantly fighting

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war of austrian succession

began during reign of charles VI → pushed pragmatic sanction giving his daughter right to succeed (maria theresa came to power)

france and prussia ignore this when he dies in order to take more lands

frederick II of prussia launched attack 4 silesia (richest part), hard for maria theresa to regain the territory, got help of hungarian nobility to put down revolt and stay on the throne

led to general european war → ended with treaty of aix la chapelle (austrian throne saved for hapsburgs, maria theresa’s husband becomes emperor francis I)

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result of austrian succession

prussia becomes german state, biggest rival of austria

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diplomatic revolution

alliance with french to protect from increasing prussian power

reversal of alliances

gb broke off ties with austria, allies with prussia

directly led to 7 years war

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7 years war

frederick launches pre-emptive strike on austria

defeated french and austrian army

massive russian army took over capital of berlin (in frederick’s territory), peter 3 saved prussia from being demolished (big fan of frederick)

frederick wins, british allies win french and indian war

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russia

duchy of moscovy emerged as dominant state, absorbed rival states, pushed mongols back

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ivan the terrible

really violent expansion thru moscow

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time of troubles

after ivan the terrible → romanov dynasty came into power until 19th century revolution

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peter the great

transformed russia into great power, westernized russia,

taxed serfs and commodities like salt for more revenue → est. centralized bureaucracy

est. St.Petersburg as capital

conscripted serfs for army, built first navy → expanded russian territory

defeated Gustavus Adolphus in Great Northern War (ended Swedish dominance/power)

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catherine the great

revised and codified russian law, no long lasting reform

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80

spain

charles iii as king of naples

main goal was to reduce power of church in spain

pope clement xii refused to acknowledge him as naples king (see as papal state) → benedict xiv (charles cements his authority)

negotiated concordat with benedict to tax clergy, hold equal

became king of spain

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charles king of spain

wants to continue reforms, limits power of church

Inquisition viewed as antiquated mission

see spain as unified state

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poland

966 → starting date when prince Mieszko founded Piast dynasty, ruled for four centuries

adopted roman catholicism, tied to western world

no natural borders (threats 4 mongols, etc) → new Jagiellon dynasty (united w. lithuania)

polish-lithuanian commonwealth, victory at battle of grunwald (no strong centralized gov, nobles weaken it)

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sejm

polish-lithunian parliament

europe’s first written constitution, angered nobles

led to another partition

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great britain

most stable nation bc of parliament (critical for est. of its empire, industrial transformation)

queen anne dies → george i

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george 1 & 2

rulers from hanover (not rly qualified, just prot cousins), didn’t really care abt gb

parliament dominates government → creation of PM

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robert wallpole

chancellor, de facto ruler during georges

maintained control over house of commons

developed PM position

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formation of two new political parties

tories and whigs → stabilized gov

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tories

conservative, god-given rights of monarch and church of england

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whigs

liberal, liked revolutionary ideas and religious tolerance

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george iii

wanted monarch to have more power → edmund burke says political parties necessary for stablility

wanted own chief minister

lots of consequences for 13 american colonies (american revolution)

ended w. french and indian war w. victories but massive debts → taxes for revenue

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france

increased power of louis xiv → backlash against absolutism

papal decree attack jansenists (catholic sect), gave french ppl opening to challenge french throne

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louis xv

lots of financial troubles (seven years war), abolished parlements

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louis xvi

brought parlements back to win favor of nobility

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background to french revolution

louis xvi could have been good constitutional monarch, but was absolute monarch + Marie Antoinette (infertility rumors, etc)

lots of debt from seven years war + american revolution

louis has to tell french nobility to pay taxes again

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calling the estates general

louis xiv had to call assembly of notables, see if willing to pay new land tax (refused) → start of rev

demanded estates-general to be called → 3rd Estate pledges the tennis court oath → king grants concessions (too little too late)

consolidates three into National Assembly

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storming of bastille

physical landmark of absolutism

80k ppl demand the fortress be surrendered

louis recognizes commune of paris, formation of national guard under marquis de lafayette

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Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen

used language of enlightenment to say political power rested in the hands of ppl that support the gov

all citizens have equal rights and responsibilities, under law

can’t violate private property

triggered women to think abt their own rights (olympes de gouges writes right of women)

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98

jacobin

left-wing revolutionaries who aimed to end the reign of King Louis XVI and establish a French republic in which political authority came from the people. The Jacobins were the most famous and radical political faction involved in the French Revolution.

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jerondins

faction of jacobins

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sans-culottes

campaigned for a more democratic constitution, price controls, harsh laws against political enemies, and economic legislation to assist the needy

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