digestive

studied byStudied by 1 person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

ingestion

1 / 120

Tags and Description

121 Terms

1

ingestion

the process of taking food, drink, or another substance into the body by swallowing or absorbing it

New cards
2

secretion

the release of water, acids, enzymes, buffers, and. Salts. (saliva, chyme, enzymes)

New cards
3

motility

movement

New cards
4

peristalsis

· propulsion (pushing towards anus)

New cards
5

· pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum

New cards
6

segementation

· Keeps on squishing/mixing in a localized place

New cards
7

· Small intestine

New cards
8

haustral churning

· Large intestine

New cards
9

· Slow contractions of haustra to facilitate churning and squeezing out moisture

New cards
10

Ø For water resorption

New cards
11

digestion

Ø Mechanical or chemical break down of substances to be used in the body

New cards
12

Ø Completion of digestion is in small intestine

New cards
13

absorption

Small intestine- mostly nutrients

New cards
14

Large intestine- water

New cards
15

defecation

Elimination of feces from digestive tract through anus

New cards
16

GI tract

Ø Mouth

New cards
17

Ø Pharynx

New cards
18

Ø Esophagus

New cards
19

Ø Stomach

New cards
20

Ø Small intestine

New cards
21

Ø Large intestine

New cards
22

Ø Anal canal

New cards
23

accesory digestive organs

aids in ingestion, digestion, and absorption, but does not touch the food

New cards
24

Ø Teeth (know the 4 types of teeth and their uses)

New cards
25

Ø Tongue

New cards
26

Ø Salivary glands

New cards
27

Ø Liver

New cards
28

Ø Gallbladder

New cards
29

Ø Pancreas

New cards
30

bolus

wad of food that is mixed with saliva

New cards
31

chyme

The bolus is now called chyme when it is mixed with gastric acids in the stomach

New cards
32

lumen

cavity

New cards
33

Mucosa

The innermost layer of the human digestive tract; secrete digestive enzymes

New cards
34

gastric pits

Gastric glands that release secretions into the stomach

New cards
35

gastric glands

secrete gastric juice

New cards
36

cheif cells

secrete pepsinogen and gastric lipase

New cards
37

parietal cells

secrete HCl and intrinsic factor

New cards
38

intestinal crypts

found in the mucosa of the small intestine; produces intestinal juice

New cards
39

circular folds

deep folds of the mucosa and submucosa that extend completely or partially around the circumference of the small intestine

New cards
40

absorptive cells

Intestinal cells that line the villi; and participate in nutrient absorption

New cards
41

goblet cells

secrete mucus

New cards
42

villi

Tiny finger-shaped structures that cover the inner surface of the small intestine and provide a large surface area through which digested food is absorbed

New cards
43

Microvili

increase surface area for absorption

New cards
44

Peyer's patches

the numerous areas of lymphoid tissue in the wall of the small intestine that are involved in the development of immunity to antigens present there.

New cards
45

Submucosa

A layer of the human digestive system that contains nerves, blood vessels, and lymph nodes

New cards
46

Muscularis

the muscular layer of a hollow organ or tube

New cards
47

Serosa

outermost layer

New cards
48

mouth (oral cavity)

opening where food enters the body and undergoes the first process of digestion

New cards
49

lips

form the opening to the oral cavity

New cards
50

hard palate

roof of the mouth

New cards
51

soft palate

muscular posterior (back) portion of the palate

New cards
52

uvula

soft tissue hanging from the middle of the soft palate

New cards
53

tongue

manipulates food for chewing and swallowing; a taste organ

New cards
54

Pharynx

throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx

New cards
55

oropharynx

the area directly posterior to the mouth

New cards
56

laryngopharynx

lower part of the pharynx, just below the oropharyngeal opening into the larynx and esophagus

New cards
57

esophagus

A muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach.

New cards
58

upper esophageal sphincter

prevents backflow of food from esophagus back into mouth

New cards
59

gastroesophageal sphincter

separates the esophagus from the stomach

New cards
60

stomach

A muscular and elastic sac that serves mainly to store food, break it up mechanically, and begin chemical digestion of proteins and fat

New cards
61

cardiac region of stomach

surrounds the cardiac orifice

New cards
62

fundus region of stomach

bulge above the esophageal opening

New cards
63

pyloric region of stomach

lower portion of the stomach

New cards
64

lesser curvature

concave medial surface of the stomach

New cards
65

greater curvature of stomach

convex lateral surface of the stomach

New cards
66

rugae of stomach

let stomach expand when full

New cards
67

gastric juice

A digestive fluid secreted by the stomach

New cards
68

pyloric sphincter (of stomach)

Controls passage of food from stomach to small intestine

New cards
69

mesentery

structure that suspends the small intestine from the posterior body wall

New cards
70

lesser omentum

attaches stomach to liver

New cards
71

greater omentum

a fatty sheet that hangs like an apron over the abdominal viscera

New cards
72

small intestine

The part of the digestive system in which most chemical digestion takes place

New cards
73

duodenum

first portion of the small intestine

New cards
74

jejumun

middle of small intestine

New cards
75

ileum

the last and longest portion of the small intestine

New cards
76

brush border enzymes

break down double sugars into simple sugars and complete protein digestion

New cards
77

ileocecal valve

prevents food from moving back into the small intestine once it has entered the large intestine

New cards
78

large intestine

Absorbs water and forms feces

New cards
79

cecum

a pouch connected to the junction of the small and large intestines.

New cards
80

appendix

blind pouch hanging from the cecum

New cards
81

ascending colon

portion of the colon that extends upward from the cecum

New cards
82

transverse colon

the middle part of the large intestine, passing across the abdomen from right to left below the stomach

New cards
83

descending colon

portion of the colon that extends downward from the transverse colon

New cards
84

sigmoid colon

an S-shaped structure that continues from the descending colon above and joins with the rectum below

New cards
85

rectum

the final section of the large intestine, terminating at the anus

New cards
86

anal canal

region, containing two sphincters, through which feces are expelled from the body

New cards
87

internal anal sphincter

smooth muscle, involuntary

New cards
88

external anal sphincter

skeletal muscle, voluntary

New cards
89

haustra

pouches of the large intestine that allow expansion and elongation

New cards
90

anus

terminal end or opening of the digestive tract to the outside of the body

New cards
91

teeth

hard bony projections in the jaws for masticating (chewing) food

New cards
92

incisors

Front teeth used for cutting

New cards
93

canines (cuspids)

Teeth in front of the premolars that rip and tear food.

New cards
94

premolars (bicuspids)

broad crowns with rounded cusps used to grind or crush

New cards
95

molars (tricuspids)

Tooth type with a large flat surface and three grinding cusps

New cards
96

salivary glands

Glands of the mouth that produce saliva, a digestive secretion

New cards
97

parotid

the parotid gland is the salivary gland beside the ear

New cards
98

submandibular salivary gland

a salivary gland inside the lower jaw on either side that produces most of the nocturnal saliva

New cards
99

sublingual gland

salivary gland under the tongue

New cards
100

saliva

softens food in the mouth making it easier to swallow; helps break down food into simpler forms; secreted by glands in the mouth

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 86 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 46 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1461 people
Updated ... ago
4.6 Stars(7)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 466 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(4)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1184 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(9)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard41 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard55 terms
studied byStudied by 41 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard38 terms
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard38 terms
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard60 terms
studied byStudied by 29 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard84 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard93 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)