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Persian poet, Islamic scholar, theologian, Sufi mystic

Spiritual legacy and contribution transcends ethnics, religions, time etc.

Goal in life is to attain God

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What is Sufism?

A group within Shia or Sunni Muslims (isn’t considered as a different sect)

Losing oneself in dancing and singing

Based on creative energies a more of a mystical group

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The universality of the call

All Muslims are brothers and equals without any distinction of class, race or tongue.

Superiority is only based on the greater fear of God and greater piety.

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Judgment and the Hereafter

When a soul passes into the afterlife, God will reconfigure the person’s physical body to stand before Him on the Day of Judgment.

God will determine whether the soul is sent to Paradise or Hell by judging people’s actions and intentions.

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God created human beings with a body and soul

The body is a temporary host for this life, whereas the soul is eternal. It is the soul that will survive beyond death and move on to the afterlife.

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All children are born without sin and are Muslim

As they grow older, they make their religious choice.

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All God’s creation is “Muslim”

Only humans are given the choice to submit (be Muslim) or reject submission to God’s will.

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The rules and regulations of Muslim life. The ways by which Islamic belief and practice are regulated.

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What the Prophet Muhammad said and did

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The holy book of Islam which means “recitation”

Records the revealed word of God that came through Angel Gabriel to Muhammad over a 23-year period

Muhammad dictated revelations to scribes and companions who memorized passages

It is the only revealed book that has remained intact and unchanged since its revelation (oral tradition)

The principle source of Muslim faith and practice

Children are encouraged to memorize the Qur’an

Divided into 114 suras (chapters)

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Prayer Rug

Used for cleanliness during prayer,

A symbol of their identity

silk and cotton


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Appointed sign of times, seasons, fasts and feasts, and governs the Islamic calendar.

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five-pointed star, light and knowledge.

five points of the star can represent the five pillars of Islam

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Qibla Compass

Used to tell what direction you must orient yourself in when you pray

Qibla means "direction"

1730 by El-Baroon

Is usually made out of brass and glass.

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Ottoman Sultanate

Soon became a hereditary institute when the dynastic system of rule was introduced to the Islamic world by the Umayyads

Overthrown and replaced by the Abbasids

The Abbasids, after the destruction of Baghdad in 1258 CE, held nothing but the title itself.

Changed when Ottoman Sultans took over the institute, becoming the first and last non-Arabs to do so

Continued it until 1924 CE when it was officially abolished by Turkish nationalist leader Mustafa Kemal Pasha (the father of modern Turkey

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Who is remembered for the “golden age of the Abbasids”?

Caliph Harun al-Rashid (786-789 CE)

Most famous of the Abbasids(featured prominently in folktales and legends)

Grand Library of Baghdad – the Bayt al Hikma (House of Wisdom) estabished and became center of learning for hte world

classic works of the Greeks were translated into Arabic

Largely because f the Bayt al-Hikma that European Renaissance would take place as all of the Greek manuscripts would have been otherwise lost

Reign rememberd as the golden age of the Abbasids

Government make great advances in administration

Showed great competence in battle by leading armies into Asia Minor on successful military campaigns against the Byzantines in 806 CE.

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Why do many Muslim Historians praise Umar ibn Abd-Al-Aziz (Uman II)?

Devoted to Islam

Short reign was reminiscent of the earlier Rashidun Caliphate

Promoted equality, facilitated conversion by making taxes lenient on non-Arab Muslims, stopped public cursing of Ali, and also halted raids on peaceful neighbors of the empire

Stance on justice and piety brought him into rivalry with his own clan, who killed him in 720 CE

Legendary figure

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What language became the lingua franca of the Empire during Caliph Abd al-Malik’s reign?


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What happened during the Umayyad Dynasty?

Muawiyya took over as the caliph after Ali, when Ali died, creating the Umayyad Dynasty. Power was shifted from Iraq to Syria and Medina would never regain the political power it once had

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Who was chosen to be Muhammad's successor?

Eventually Abu Bakr was chosen

Some felt Ali was unfit for leadership because he was only 30 years old

This caused a rift within the Muslim community

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Was Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law

Some believed that Muhammad publicly acknowledged Ali as his successor shortly before his death

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Abu Bakr

Was Muhammad’s close friend and supporter

Served Muhammad loyally in Mecca and Medinah

Claimed he should be the successor

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Who were the 2 people who were claimed to be Muhammad's successors?

Abu Bakr


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What did the death of Muhammad bring?

The death of Muhammad brought confusion in the Muslim community

Muhammad had been such a gifted leader and replacing him would be difficult

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First Four Caliphates

The first four caliphs are referred to as the “Rightly-Guided Caliphs” or “Rashidin”

Each was a close friend of Muhammad, knew the Qur’an well, and was a devout adherent to Islam

Each was able to hold the Muslim community together despite the internal political conflict

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Assumed leadership of a divided Muslim community

Defended his rule in a battle against the Umayyad family, marking the first time Muslims fought Muslims

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Oversaw the expansion of Islam west across northern Africa, and east into northern India

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Continued the spread of Islam into Syria, Palestine, Egypt, and Persia

Implemented Sharia Law

Establishing an public treasury

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Abu Bakr


Consolidated the individual chapters of the Qur’an

Solidified his leadership and suppressed the Arab tribes who say Muhammad’s death as an opportunity to turn against Islam

Continued the spread of Islam in the Middle East

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Problem with the Prophet Muhammad's demise

(632 CE) was that he had not appointed an heir, and since he had no surviving sons, a conflict arose. The closest relative of Muhammad, according to some his rightful heir, was Ali, his cousin and son-in-law (he had married Muhammad's daughter Fatima).

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A caliphate was one that was a close friend of Muhammad, knew the Qur’an well, and was a devout adherent of Islam.

Each was able to hold the Muslim community together despite the internal political conflict.

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Women have to cover themselves to every male except for family

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Similarities in family life

Divorce is not recommended, but is acceptable if needed

Men and Women are Equal

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You can only divorce twice, and after that either you have to keep them or let them go gently. You cannot take anything from them even if you gave it.

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Gender Roles

Men and women are seen as equals by Allah, and he has the same plans for both.

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Allah says to both genders to cover their private parts and reduce their vision.

However, for women, Allah says to wrap a headcover over their head, and not show off their beauty to men except for those who are of her family, or children who are not aware of the private parts of women.

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Islam teachings with Parents

Allah says to love your parents if they reach old age with you, as they brought you up when you were small. Allah instructs men to treat their parents well as Moms carry their kids through hardship, through pregnancy and breastfeeding over 30 months. When men grow up, they should be grateful and willing to do the same for their kids as their parents did for them. Both the young and elderly should be taken care of

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Zina refers to full and proper dress

Should cover, but also give a decent appearance

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An Arabic term which refers to the common brimless knit skull cap

Traditionally, when worn by men, the kufi is a sign of peace, mourning, renewal or protection of the mind.

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What is the term Haram applied to?

Actions (i.e premarital sex, murder, or getting a tattoo)


Food and drinks (i.e. pork, alcohol)

Inactions, such as abandoning the salat

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five categories of, or the hierarchy of, acts from permitted to non-permitted

Compulsory duty





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To what people do the sin of Haram spread?

The sin of haram is not limited to the person who engages in the prohibited activity, but the sin also extends to others who support the person in the activity, whether it be material or moral support.

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Righteous Conduct

Alcohol is haram, forbidden

No gambling: lotteries, bingo, etc.

No idolatry, polytheism

Smoking is not haram but is discouraged because it harms Allah’s creation


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What has religious Islamic act been characterized by?

absence of figures and extensive use of calligraphic, geometric and abstract floral patterns.

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The hadith

contains more explicit prohibitions of images of living beings, challenging painters to "breathe life" into their images and threatening them with punishment on the Day of Judgment.

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Although the Quran does not explicitly prohibit visual representation of any living being, it uses the word musawwir (maker of forms, artist) as an epithet of God.

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Islamic aniconism (avoidance of images)

stems in part from the prohibition of idolatry and in part from the belief that the creation of living forms is God's prerogative.

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Crescent and Star

No symbol is doctrinally associated with Islam, but this crescent moon and star are used to symbolize Islam

hilal in Arabic

no religious significance in Islam, not holy

crescent represents progress

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Seal of the Prophet – Very significant

Used in the Qur’an to reference the Prophet Muhammad

Interpreted to mean that there will be no other Prophets after Muhammad – he is the last messenger of God (Allah).

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Shariah law

From Muhammad

Is more punishing than the other religious laws

More open to Interpretation

More Detailed in comparison to the ten commandments

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Similarities of Shariah law and 10 Commandments Shariah Law

All were given to us through God

Moral laws on how to live

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How is Sharia Law considered a source of moral authority?

It was given to us by Allah (revealed truth)

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Why is Sharia Law such a controversial topic today?

These laws never change and do not evolve. With Sharia law, there are no easy answers or quick interpretations. As it stands today, almost anyone can make rulings, as long as they have the appearance of piety and a group of followers. It is also controversial because of the value, such as the oppression of women and the harsh physical punishments

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How is Sharia Law considered revealed truth?

It is up to the people who practice Islam to decipher what they think the meaning of the Shariah Law is

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Is Sharia Law one set of laws that is applied to each country in the same way?

It can be the set of laws in a country, but not all countries follow this.

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What were used during Muhammad, and Ottoman times?

During the prophet Muhammed’s times, date stones and pebbles were used, while in Ottoman times rock crystal beads with silver tassels were preferred

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Characteristics of Prayer beads, and how are they used?

Muslims generally use 99 (or 33x3) beads, which symbolize the 99 names of Allah.. Muslims place their finger and thumb over each bead as they count


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What are used prayer beads used for?

Used to mark repetitions of prayer or other ritual recitations

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The glorification of god in Islam by saying Subhānallāh (“Glorified is God”). Often repeated a certain number of times, using either the phalanges of the right hand or a misbaha to keep track of counting.

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chief officer in the mosque who leads prayers and delivers the sermon; not the equivalent of a priest; often has jobs outside of the mosque

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Cleaning process before prayer (Water)

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High tower or dome from which a muezzin calls the faithful to prayer

Represents the pure and holy soul and the importance of prayer

beauty of Islam

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A pulpit in the mosque where the imam(prayer leader) stands to deliver sermons

The succeeding caliphs from Muhammad used his minbar as a symbol of authority.

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Men and Women in the Mosque

They sit seperatly, to minimize distractions

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What does the mosque begin with?

Muslim call to prayer(Adhan)

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A small arch or hole in the wall indicates the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca

Originates from the Ummayad Period

It is made up of tiles covered with a glaze.

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What is the seating situation in the mosque?

No seats/pews; worshippers sit on the carpeted floor Exceptions made for some

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When do Muslims come together in a mosque?

Midday on Friday(Muslim Holy Day), Mandatory

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What must be done before entering the mosque?

Remove shoes

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What is a mosque?

A place of ritual prostration Muslim place of worship

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What ritual is applied when killing an animal, and are there exceptions?

Must be slaughtered by a Muslim and/or by one of the people of the book (Christain or Jew) While mentioning the name of God Must be killed quickly with a sharpened blade. It must not suffer. It must not see the blade. It must not see or smell the blood from a previous slaughter

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Acording to the Qur'an, what foods are forbidden?

Meat from animals that die of themselves Blood The meat of swine (porcine animals, pigs) And animals dedicated to other than Allah (i.e to idols) Ritual animal slaughter; does not apply to most aquatic animals

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Is a person guilty if they do not have a Halal alternative

But a person is not guilty of sin in a situation where the lack of an alternative creates an undesired necessity to consume that which is otherwise unlawful

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Where are the dietary restrictions derived from?

Derived from commandments found in the Qur’an as well as the Hadith and Sunnah (scriptures which record things the Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said and done)

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"Holy war"

There is no such thing as “holy war” in Islam, but it is the frequent repetition in the West that many people accept it as if it were a fact

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What does the concept of Jihad include

The concept includes the struggle against evil inclinations within oneself, the struggle to improve quality of life in society, the struggle on the battlefield for self-defence or fighting against tyranny or oppression

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What does Jihad mean?

Not "holy war", but "strive, struggle and exert effort

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What rules are in place for combat?

Strict rules for combat, which includes prohibitions against harming civilians and against destroying crops, trees and livestock

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What is Islam's view on defence?

Islam permits fighting in self-defence, in defence of religion, or on the part of those who have been expelled forcibly from their homes

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What did Muhammad do when he came back?

Muhammad forgave the people of Mecca and they changed their stance on Muhammad and his teachings. Muhammad continued to live in Medina and left one of the tribal chiefs in charge of Mecca.

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Few people opposed what(Conquest of Mecca)?

Few opposed his return, or the removal of idols from the Kabah.

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When did Muhammad lead how many people into Mecca, and what was this called?

In 630 CE Muhammad led a group of 10 000 into Mecca for what is commonly referred to as the "Conquest of Mecca"

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Where was Muhammad's teaching becoming popular,and what was growing?

Mecca, Muslim conversions steadily grew.

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What happened after Muhammad's last pilgrimage?

After the pilgrimage, Muhammad came down with a fever and a few weeks later in June of 632, he died at the age of 63.

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Why and where did Muhammad stop on his last pilgrimage?

He stopped at Mount Arafat and gave his "farewell sermon," ordering forgiveness for those who had done wrong and highlighting core elements of Islamic teaching.

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What do Sunni Muslims emphasize?

Emphasizes no tolerance of dissent and change. Yet, members of this group are very culturally and religiously diverse due to the fact they have grown all over the world Faith and practice do not have to be uniform, rather one's personal relationship with Allah, without any human mediator, is essential

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Which sect emerged as the dominant force within Islam?


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Which sect is the most formal or orthodox of Islam


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What do Sunni Muslims believe?

Believe that Muhammed intended the leader of the Muslims to be elected and this would mean the best person could be chosen, rather than that leadership should be automatically given to the son of the previous leader

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What word does Sunni come from?


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What do Shiites have?

Great devotion to their leaders which can sometimes be difficult for others to understand

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Until Medhi returns, whose hands is Imam's teachings in?

Until this happens, Imams' teachings is in the hands of the "Doctors of the Law", called Ayatollahs which means "mark of Allah".

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What heavy emphasis is there about Imams?

Heavy emphasis on the role of individual leaders, the lineage of Imams

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Do not accept the first 3 caliphs

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Shiites belief on the Imams

Shiites who do not accept the first 3 caliphs. Shiites believe that there were 12 Imams (some think 7) who were given special powers by Allah just as Muhammed was. Ali was the first true imam and so on, until the last, Mahdi, who disappeared mysteriously in 800 c.e. They believe he will return on day and bring the end of the world

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How did the Shi'ah sect first emerge?

This sect emerged first as a political faction, and later doctrinal differences emerged

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What percantage of the world's muslims are Shi'ah?

10%, but it is increasing

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Command to Rise and Worship; 2nd call to prayer

Whispered in the baby's left ear

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