PBSI 107 FLASHCARDS: Exam #4

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Personality

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173 Terms

1

Personality

Describes the unique patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that distinguish a person from others

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2

Psychodynamic Approach to Personality

Explains personality in terms of unconscious psychological processes and contends that childhood experiences are crucial in shaping adult personality

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3

Learning Approach to Personality

Proposes that personality is shaped through learned experiences

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4

Humanistic Approach to Personality

Explains personality by emphasizing differences between our real selves and our ideal selves

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5

Biological Approach to Personality

Emphasizes the internal physiological and genetic factors that influence personality

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6

Trait Approach to Personality

Rests on the idea that people's personalities differ from one another based on the strength and intensity of basic trait dimensions

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Social Cognitive Approach to Personality

Suggests personality is shaped by interacting social factors, cognitive factors, and behavior

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8

Id

The primitive and instinctual part of the mind that contains sexual and aggressive drives and hidden memories

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9

Ego

The realistic part of the mind that mediates between the desires of the id and the super-ego

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10

Super-Ego

The idealistic part of the mind that operates as a moral conscience

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11

Freudian Slip

A verbal or memory mistake linked to the unconscious mind

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12

Defense Mechanisms

Psychological strategies that are unconsciously used to protect a person from anxiety arising from unacceptable thoughts or feelings

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13

Repression

Involves the exclusion of distressing memories, thoughts, or feelings from the conscious mind

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Rationalization

Involves the justification of difficult or unacceptable feelings with seemingly logical reasons and explanations

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15

Displacement

Involves an individual transferring negative feelings from one person or thing to another

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Sublimation

Involves channeling unwanted or unacceptable urges into an admissible or productive outlet

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Projection

Involves projecting undesirable feelings or emotions onto someone else, rather than admitting to or dealing with the unwanted feelings

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Reaction Formation

Involves an individual expressing the opposite of their true feelings, sometimes to an exaggerated extent

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19

Denial

Involves the conscious refusal to perceive that painful facts exist

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20

Regression

Involves dealing with stress by behaving in an immature or age-inappropriate way

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21

Freud's Psychosexual Stages of Human Development

The process during which personality and sexual behavior mature through a series of stages

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22

Oral Stage

The initial stage of psychosexual development during which the child's main concerns are with oral gratification; lasts from birth to 18 months of age

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23

Anal Stage

The stage of psychosexual development during which the child's main concerns are with the processes of elimination; lasts from 18 months to three years of age

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Phallic Stage

The stage of psychosexual development wherein the child's desires center upon their genitalia as the erogenous zone; lasts from three to six years of age

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25

Oedipus Complex

Involves a son's adoration for his mother and his jealousy toward his father

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Electra Complex

Involves a daughter's adoration for her father and her jealousy toward her mother

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27

Resolution of Oedipus/Electra Complex

When children overcome their incestuous and competitive emotions and begin to identify with their same-sex parent

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28

Latency Period

The stage of psychosexual development in which overt sexual interest is sublimated and the child's attention is focused on skills and peer activities with members of his or her own sex; lasts from six years of age to puberty

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Genital Stage

The final stage of psychosexual development where the child seeks ways of satisfying sexual impulses in dyadic relationships, and aggressive impulses through competition, physically demanding activities, exercise, and argumentation; lasts from puberty to adulthood

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30

Individual Psychology

Body of theories developed by Alfred Adler, who held that the main motives of human thought and behaviour are an individual's striving for superiority and power, partly in compensation for feelings of inferiority

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31

Inferiority Complex

An intense personal feeling of inadequacy; part of Albert Adler's theories

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32

Archetypes

A perfect or representative example of something that may also be used as a default mental image; a concept developed by Carl Jung

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33

Collective Unconscious

A collection of knowledge and imagery that every person is born with and is shared by all human beings due to ancestral experience; a concept developed by Carl Jung

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34

Karen Horney

A German psychoanalyst who challenged many traditional Freudian views by emphasizing social factors and security needs and by confronting gender biases

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35

Reciprocal Determinism

A social-cognitive theory which argues that behavior, cognition, and environment all interact with and influence one another; developed by Albert Bandura

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36

Self-Efficacy

An individual's belief in his or her capacity to execute behaviors necessary to produce specific performance attainments; a concept developed by Albert Bandura

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37

Locus of Control

The degree to which people believe that they, as opposed to external forces, have control over the outcome of events in their lives; a concept developed by Julian Rotter

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38

Situationism

The theory that changes in human behavior are factors of the situation rather than the traits a person possesses; developed by Walter Mischel

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39

Self-Regulation

The control of one’s behavior through the use of self-monitoring, self-evaluation, and self-reinforcement; a concept developed by Walter Mischel

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40

Self-Actualization

A concept regarding the process by which an individual reaches his or her full potential; part of Abraham Maslow's theories

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41

Self-Concept

A collection of beliefs one holds about oneself and the responses of others; a concept developed by Carl Rogers

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42

Conditions of Worth

The conditions we think we must meet in order for other people to accept us as worthy of their love or positive regard; a concept developed by Carl Rogers

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43

The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart

Showed that identical twins who are reared apart had the same chance of being similar as twins who were raised together

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44

Gordon Allport

An American psychologist who was responsible for developing the three different categories of personality traits

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45

Cardinal Category of Personality Traits

Traits that are rare, but strongly deterministic of behavior

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46

Central Category of Personality Traits

Traits that are present to varying degrees in all people; these traits influence, but do not determine, an individual’s behavior

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Secondary Category of Personality Traits

Traits that are also present in all individuals and can influence behavior, but are strongly dependent upon immediate context, such that they are not apparent in all situations

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48

The Big Five Personality Factors

Includes emotional instability, extroversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness

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49

Self-Report Personality Inventory

A type of personality test in which a person fills out a survey or questionnaire with or without the help of an investigator

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50

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2)

The most common psychometric test devised to assess personality traits and psychopathology

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51

Projective Tests

A type of personality test designed to let a person respond to ambiguous stimuli, presumably revealing hidden emotions and internal conflicts projected by the person into the test

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52

Rorschach Inkblot Test

A projective psychological test in which subjects' perceptions of inkblots are recorded and then analyzed using psychological interpretation, complex algorithms, or both

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53

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

A projective psychological test that involves having people explain what is happening in ambiguous scenes

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54

Psychological Disorders

Mental conditions that create distress and affect a person's ability to function

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55

Insanity

A legal term; a mental illness of such a severe nature that a person cannot distinguish fantasy from reality, cannot conduct her/his affairs due to psychosis, or is subject to uncontrollable impulsive behavior

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Insanity Defense

An affirmative defense by excuse in a criminal case, arguing that the defendant is not responsible for their actions due to an episodic psychiatric disease at the time of the criminal act

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57

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5)

The handbook used by healthcare professionals in the United States and much of the world as the authoritative guide to the diagnosis of mental disorders

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58

Biopsychosocial Model

Systematically considers biological, psychological, and social factors and their complex interactions in understanding health, illness, and health care delivery

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59

Phobia

A persistent and irrational fear of a particular object or situation

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60

Social Anxiety Disorder

An anxiety disorder characterized by a long-term and overwhelming fear of social situations; also commonly referred to as social phobia

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Panic Disorder

An anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected and repeated episodes of intense fear accompanied by physical symptoms that may include chest pain, heart palpitations, shortness of breath, dizziness, or abdominal distress

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Generalized Anxiety Disorder

An anxiety disorder characterized by persistent and excessive worry that interferes with daily activities

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63

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

A psychological disorder in which an individual has uncontrollable, reoccurring thoughts ("obsessions") and/or behaviors ("compulsions") that they feel the urge to repeat over and over

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Body Dysmorphic Disorder

A psychological disorder in which a person spends a lot of time worrying about flaws in their appearance

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65

Hoarding Disorder

A psychological disorder in which an individual acquires an excessive number of items and stores them in a chaotic manner, usually resulting in unmanageable amounts of clutter

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66

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

A psychological disorder that may occur in people who have experienced or witnessed a traumatic event, series of events, or set of circumstances

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67

Major Depressive Disorder (Unipolar)

A mood disorder characterized by a persistent feeling of sadness or a lack of interest in outside stimuli

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68

Persistent Depressive Disorder

A mood disorder characterized as a milder, but more long-lasting form of depression; also commonly referred to as dysthymia

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69

Seasonal Depression

A mood disorder characterized as a type of depression that is related to changes in seasons

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70

Postpartum Depression

A mood disorder characterized as a type of depression that is related to pregnancy/childbirth

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71

Bipolar Disorder

A mood disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, energy, activity levels, concentration, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks

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72

Schizophrenia

A psychological disorder characterized by disruptions in thought processes, perceptions, emotional responsiveness, and social interactions

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73

Dissociative Amnesia

A dissociative disorder characterized by retrospectively reported memory gaps

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74

Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder

A dissociative disorder characterized by an altered state of self-awareness and identity that results in a feeling of dissociation, or disconnection, from oneself, one’s surroundings, or both

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75

Dissociative Identity Disorder

A dissociative disorder characterized by a person's identity fragmenting into two or more distinct personality states

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76

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)

A personality disorder characterized by extreme mood fluctuations, instability in interpersonal relationships, and impulsivity

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77

Antisocial Personality Disorder

A personality disorder characterised by impulsive, irresponsible, and often criminal behaviour

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78

Psychotherapy

The use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior, increase happiness, and overcome problems

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79

Psychoanalytic Therapy

A form of in-depth talk therapy that aims to bring unconscious or deeply buried thoughts and feelings to the conscious mind so that repressed experiences and emotions, often from childhood, can be brought to the surface and examined

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80

Interpretation

Explanation by the therapist in terms that are meaningful to the client of the client's issues, behaviors, or feelings

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81

Free Association

The expression of the content of consciousness without censorship as an aid in gaining access to unconscious processes

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82

Resistance

The obstruction, through the client’s words or behavior, of the therapist’s or analyst’s methods of eliciting or interpreting psychic material brought forth in therapy

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Transference

The act of the client unknowingly transferring feelings about someone from their past onto the therapist

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84

Dream Analysis

A technique in which the content of dreams is interpreted to reveal underlying motivations or symbolic meanings and representations

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85

Manifest Content

The actual literal subject matter of a dream

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86

Latent Content

The underlying meaning of the dream

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87

Play Therapy

A form of therapy that uses play activities to help children through mental and emotional issues

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Behavioral Therapy

A form of therapy that looks to identify and help change potentially self-destructive or unhealthy behaviors

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Counterconditioning

A technique in which behavior is modified through a new association with a stimulus of an opposite valence

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Aversive Conditioning

A technique used to help a person give up a behavior or habit by having them associate it with something unpleasant

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Exposure Therapy

A technique used by therapists to help people overcome fears and anxieties by immersing them in the cause of their stress

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Systematic Desensitization

A technique whereby a person is gradually exposed to an anxiety-producing stimulus while being engaged in some type of relaxation at the same time in order to reduce the symptoms of anxiety

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Applied Behavioral Analysis

A type of therapy that focuses on increasing specific desirable behaviors, as well as decreasing specific undesirable behaviors

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Token Economy

A type of therapy that involves rewarding desirable behaviors with tokens which can be exchanged for items or privileges and punishing undesirable behaviors by taking away tokens

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95

Cognitive Therapy

A form of therapy that involves efforts to change certain thinking patterns

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96

Beck's Cognitive Therapy

Helps people identify their distressing thoughts and evaluate how realistic the thoughts are

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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

A type of therapy that helps people learn how to identify and change the destructive or disturbing thought patterns that have a negative influence on their behavior and emotions

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98

Humanistic Therapy

A form of therapy that uses a strong relationship between the client and therapist to allow people to explore and reach their fullest potential

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Client-Centered Therapy

A form of therapy based on a belief that the client is best able to decide what to explore and how

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100

Active Listening

A way of listening and responding to another person that improves mutual understanding

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