Biochemistry Updated Exam 1 Flashcards

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Where is the uncommon amino acid hydroxyproline located?

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Chemistry

complete content for exam 1 in better form for studying (contains all learning objectives, important material from slides, all charts we need to memorize(uncommon aa's, protein classes, antibody classes, enzyme classes, co-enzyme classes), it does not include the 20 common amino acids (I'm going to make a separate updated set for those)

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1

Where is the uncommon amino acid hydroxyproline located?

collagen

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2

What is the function of the uncommon amino acid hydroxyproline?

structural stability

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3

Where is the uncommon amino acid hydroxylysine located?

collagen

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4

What is the function of the uncommon amino acid hydroxylysine?

structural stability

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5

Where is the uncommon amino acid N-methyllysine located?

histones

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6

What is the function of the uncommon amino acid N-methyllysine?

genome organization and gene function regulation

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7

Where are the uncommon amino acids desmosin and isodemosine located?

elastin

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8

What is the function of the uncommon amino acids desmosin and isodemosine?

structural stability

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9

Where is the uncommon amino acid y-carboxy-glutamic-acid located

prothrombin

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10

What is the function of the uncommon amino acid y-carboxy-glutamic acid?

calcium binding

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11

Where is the uncommon amino acid selenocysteine located?

glutathione reductase and some tRNA’s

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12

What is the function of the uncommon amino acid selenocysteine?

oxidation-reduction reaction

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13

Which 3 uncommon amino acids have the biological function of structural stability?

hydroxyproline, hydroxylysine,desmosin and isodemosine

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14

Which uncommon amino acid’s function is genome organization and gene function regulation?

N-methyllysine

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15

Which uncommon amino acid has the function of calcium binding?

y-carboxy-glutamic acid

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16

Which uncommon amino acid’s function is oxidation reduction reactions?

selenocysteine

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17

Which 2 uncommon amino acids are located in collagen?

hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine

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18

Which uncommon amino acid is located in histones?

N-methyllysine

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19

Which uncommon amino acid is located in elastin?

desmosin and isodemosine

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20

Which uncommon amino acid is located in prothrombin?

y-carboxy-glutamic acid

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21

Which uncommon amino acid is located in glutathione reductase and some tRNA’s?

selenocysteine

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22

Name the uncommon amino acids

hydroxyproline, hydroxylysine, n-methyllysine. desmosin and isodesmosine, y-carboxy glutamic acid, and selenocysteine

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23

What prosthetic group does the lipoprotein class of proteins have?

lipids

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24

What prosthetic group does the glycoprotein class of proteins have?

carbohydrates

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25

What prosthetic group does the phosphoprotein class of proteins have?

phosphate groups

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26

What prosthetic group does the hemoprotein class of proteins have?

heme (iron porphyrin)

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27

What prosthetic group does the flavoprotein class of proteins have?

flavin nucleotide

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28

What prosthetic groups does the metalloprotein class of proteins have?

iron, zinc, calcium, molybdeum, and copper

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29

What class of protein has lipids as a prosthetic group?

lipoprotein

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30

What class of protein has carbohydrates as a prosthetic group?

glycoprotein

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31

What class of protein has phosphate groups as a prosthetic group?

phosphoprotein

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32

What class of protein has heme as a prosthetic group?

hemoprotein

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33

What class of protein has flavin nucleotides as a prosthetic group?

flavoprotein

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34

What class of protein has iron as a prosthetic group?

metalloprotein

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35

What class of protein has zinc as a prosthetic group?

metalloprotein

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36

What class of protein has calcium as a prosthetic group?

metalloprotein

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37

What class of protein has molybdeum as a prosthetic group?

metalloprotein

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38

What class of protein has as copper a prosthetic group?

metalloprotein

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39

What is an example of a lipoprotein?

B1-lipoprotein of the blood

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40

What is an example of the lipid protein prosthetic group?

B1-lipoprotein of the blood

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41

What is an example of a glycoprotein?

Immunoglobin G

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42

What is an example of the carbohydrate protein prosthetic group?

Immunoglobin G

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43

What is an example of a hemoprotein?

hemoglobin

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44

What is an example of the heme protein prosthetic group?

hemoglobin

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45

What is an example of a flavoprotein?

succinate dehydrogenase

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46

What is an example of the flavin nucleotide protein prosthetic group?

succinate dehydrogenase

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47

What is an example of the iron protein prosthetic group?

ferritin

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48

What is an example of the zinc protein prosthetic group?

alcohol dehydrogenase

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49

What is an example of the calcium protein prosthetic group?

calmodulin

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50

What is an example of the molybdeum protein prosthetic group?

dinitrogenase

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51

What is an example of the copper protein prosthetic group?

pastocyanin

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52

What are all the protein classes?

lipoproteins, glycoproteins, phosphoproteins, hemoproteins, flavoproteins, and metalloproteins

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53

What heavy chain does IgA have?

α (alpha)

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54

What heavy chain does IgD have?

δ (delta)

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55

What heavy chain does IgE have?

ε (epsilon)

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56

What heavy chain does IgG have?

γ (gamma)

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57

What heavy chain does IgM have?

μ (mu)

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58

Heavy chain α (alpha) belongs to which antibody?

IgA

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59

Heavy chain δ (delta) belongs to which antibody?

IgD

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60

Heavy chain ε (epsilon) belongs to which antibody?

IgE

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61

Heavy chain γ (gamma) belongs to which antibody?

IgG

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62

Heavy chain μ (mu) belongs to which antibody?

IgM

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63

Name the 5 antibody classes

IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG and IgM

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64

Name all the enzyme classes

oxidoreductase, transferases, hydrolases, lyases, isomerases, and ligases

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65

What reaction does the oxidoreductase class of enzymes catalyze?

oxidation/reduction reactions that transfer electrons

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66

What enzyme class catalyzes oxidation/reduction reactions?

oxidoreductase

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67

What reaction does the transferases class of enzymes catalyze?

group transfer reactions

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68

What enzyme class catalyzes group transfer reactions reactions?

transferases

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69

What reaction does the hydrolases class of enzymes catalyze?

hydrolisis, breakdown due to reaction with water

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70

What enzyme class catalyzes hydrolisis reactions?

hydrolases

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71

What reaction does the lysases class of enzymes catalyze?

adding groups to double bonds or removing groups to create double bonds

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72

What enzyme class catalyzes double bond creation/addition reactions?

lysases

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73

What reaction does the isomerases class of enzymes catalyze?

group transfer within molecule to change isomeric form

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74

What enzyme class catalyzes isomeric form change reactions?

isomerases

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75

What reaction does the ligases class of enzymes catalyze?

condensation/ATP cleavage reactions to form single bonds between carbon and another molecule of carbon, sulfur, oxygen or nitrogen

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76

What enzyme class catalyzes condensation/ATP cleavage reactions?

ligases

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77

Name all the co-enzymes

biocytin, coenzyme A, 5’-deoxyadenosylcoblamin, flavin adenine dinucleotide, lipotate, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, pyridoxal phosphate, tetrahydrofolate, and thiamine pyrophosphate

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78

How many co-enzymes are there

9

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79

What chemical group does the coenzyme thiamine pyrophosphate transfer?

aldehydes

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80

What chemical group does the coenzyme tetrahydrofolate transfer?

one carbon groups

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81

What chemical group does the coenzyme pyridoxal phosphate transfer?

amino groups

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82

What chemical group does the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide transfer?

hydride ions

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83

What chemical group does the coenzyme lipotate transfer?

electrons and acyl groups

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84

What chemical group does the coenzyme flavin adenine dinucleotide transfer?

electrons

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85

What chemical group does the coenzyme 5’deoxyadenosycloblamin (coenzyme B12) transfer?

H atoms and alkyl groups

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86

What chemical group does the coenzyme A transfer?

acyl groups

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87

What chemical group does the coenzyme biocytin transfer?

CO2

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88

What coenzyme transfers CO2?

biocytin

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89

What coenzyme transfers acyl groups?

coenzyme A

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90

What coenzyme transfers H atoms and alkyl groups?

5’-deoxyadenosylcoblamin (coenzyme B12)

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91

What coenzyme transfers electrons?

flavin adenine dinucleotide

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92

What coenzyme transfers electrons and acyl groups?

lipotate

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93

What coenzyme transfers hydride ions?

nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

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94

What coenzyme transfers amino groups?

pyridoxal phosphate

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95

What coenzyme transfers one carbon groups?

tetrahydrofolate

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96

What coenzyme transfers aldehydes?

thiamine pyrophosphate

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97

What is the dietary precursor to coenzyme thiamine pyrophosphate?

thiamine (vitamin B1)

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98

What is the dietary precursor to coenzyme tetrahydrofolate?

folate

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99

What is the dietary precursor to coenzyme pyridoxal phosphate?

pyridoxine (vitamin B6)

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100

What is the dietary precursor to coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide?

nicotinic acid (niacin)

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