AP Human Geography-Unit 3

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culture

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100 Terms

1

culture

a group of belief systems, norms, and values practiced by a people EX) Makan American Indians who hunt whales

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2

folk/local culture

how a group of people in a place that see themselves and share customs/traits. OR a small culture that incorporates a homogeneous population that is typically rural and cohesive in cultural traits.

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3

folklore

the traditional beliefs, customs, and stories of a community, passed through generations by word of mouth

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4

popular culture

large culture that incorporates heterogeneous populations, is typically urban, and experiences quick changing traits.

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5

material culture

the things a group of people construct, including homes, clothing, sports, dance, and foods.

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6

built environment

a material, spatial, and cultural product of human labor

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7

nonmaterial culture

beliefs, practices, aesthetics, and values of a group of people. EX) Hutterites value marrying within their religion

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8

cultural appropriation

the process by which other cultures adopt customs and knowledge and use them for their own benefit EX) People not of the culture getting henna tattoos

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9

neolocalism

seeking out the regional culture and reinvigorating it in the response to uncertainty of the modern world. EX) In Lindsborg, Kansas, they proclaim their town Little Sweden, USA

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10

ethnic neighborhoods

tight nit neighborhoods within a major city where local cultures have built a world apart to practice their customs EX) Hasidic Jews in Brooklyn, NY

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11

commodification

the process through which something (a name, good, idea, or person) becomes an object that can be bought and sold in the world market, when it previously wasn't regarded so.

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12

Distance Decay

How quickly innovations diffuse and refers to how interlinked two places are through transportation and communication

<p>How quickly innovations diffuse and refers to how interlinked two places are through transportation and communication</p>
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13

time-space compression

explains how quickly innovations diffuse and refers to how interlinked two places are through transportation and communication

<p>explains how quickly innovations diffuse and refers to how interlinked two places are through transportation and communication</p>
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14

reterritorialization

a term referring to a process in which people start to produce an aspect of popular culture themselves, doing so in the context of their local culture and place, making it their own. EX) Hip hop spread from NY and LA to major cities in Europe

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15

hierarchical diffusion

can occur through a hierarchy of places. The hearth is the point of origin. Large cities to smaller ones (trickles down)

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16

contagious diffusion

idea spreads from person to person EX) word of mouth

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17

stimulus diffusion

when an exact idea can't be adopted in a certain area (due to cultural barriers, etc.) leading to altering of the idea. It is a stimulus for newer ideas. EX) non-meat burgers at McDonald's in India

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18

relocation diffusion

when individuals who have adopted the idea move to new places and disseminate it. The hearth loses strength in the idea and the places the individuals move to gain strength in it. EX) Buddhism started in India, but now has more followers in Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar

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19

assimilation

the process of making indigenous people adopt the dominant culture and abandon their own culture. EX) US wanted to assimilate Native Americans in the 18 and 1900s.

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20

Forced assimilation

the process of making indigenous people adopt the dominant culture and abandon their own culture EX) People learning English in the US

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21

cultural landscape

the visible imprint of human activity on the landscape

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22

sequent occupance

proposed by Derwent Whittlesay. Cultural imprints made over top of each other, each affect the next, have a lasting imprint EX) In N Africa, Islamic mosques have Roman influences

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23

placelessness

coined by George Edward Relph to describe the loss of uniqueness in place in the cultural landscape to the point that one place looks like the next EX) subburbs

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24

global-local continuum

the idea that cultural borrowing and mixing is happening all over the world. Emphasizes that what happens on one scale is not independent of what happens on another. EX) Venetian hotel is Las Vegas, Nevada

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25

glocalization

people in a local place mediate and alter regional, national, and global processes. Causes global-local continuum

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26

adaptive strategy

technology, ecology, demography, and economies that define human behavior EX) farming tech, air conditioning

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27

folk-housing regions

Fred Kniffen researched house types and their diffusion in North America and found that 3 regions have these houses: (1)New England, (2) Mid-Atlantic, and (3) Lower Chesapeake Bay. The diffusion streams created the regions. EX) (1) Saltbox, two-chimney, Cape Cod, Front Wing, and Gable. (2) I-house, Tidewater. (3) Shotgun

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28

Anglo-American landscape

the township and range patterns established by early settlers in which there were long rows of roads in square or rectangular patterns EX) prevails over US Midwest

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29

traditional architecture

buildings use building materials available and reflect social/environmental customs of the people EX) log cabins

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30

folk songs

traditionally sung by the common people of a region. forms part of their culture EX) May tell stories

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31

folk food

traditional food EX) barbecue in South

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32

gender

social differences between men and women

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33

identify

how people view themselves at different scales EX) gender identity

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34

identifying against

define the "other", then define ourselves in opposing terms. One of the most powerful ways to construct an identity. EX) Europeans called the Middle East and Asia the "Orient", and called it a mystical place. They also called Africans and Americans "savage". The Europeans said they weren't either of these things, so they were therefore "civil"

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35

race

the product of ways of viewing minor genetic differences around the world. Excellent example fo how geographic context shapes identity.

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36

racism

sense of superiority attached to race

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37

residential segregation

to degree which two or more groups live separately from one another, in different parts of the urban environment. 5 statistical measurements of segregation: evenness, exposure, concentrated, centralized, and clustered. EX) In 2010 the most residentially segregated metropolitan area in the IS was Milwaukee, Wisconsin

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38

sense of place

made by the emotions and memories attached to a place. Changes as we and the place change.

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39

ethnicity

an identity based on being bounded or related to a certain place over time EX) Latino, Hispanic

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40

ghetto

a part of a city, especially a slum area, occupied by a minority group or groups EX) ghettos in NY

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41

infantcide

killing of infants EX) girls are killed in India because they are seen as a burden due to dowries

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42

barrio

An urban area in a Spanish speaking country

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43

language

a set of sounds and symbols that is used for communication

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44

standard language

a published, widely distributed, and purposefully taught language that most technologically advanced societies have.EX) Ireland promotes the use of Celtic by requiring all government workers to pass Irish-language exam

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45

dialect

a variant of a standard language along regional or ethnic liens. Made of differences in: vocab, syntax, pronunciation, cadence, and pace. EX) Southern-English

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46

isogloss

a geographic boundary in which a particular linguistic feature occurs. Rarely a simple line. EX) the lines of which American dialects are fuzzy

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47

mutual intelligibility

means that two people can understand each other while speaking. Has been rejected as strongly as environmental determinism. EX) mostly with two dialects of one language, but Danish and Norwegian speakers can understand each other while Mandarin and Cantonese canoot

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48

dialect chains

dialects nearest to each other will be most similar. As you go farther apart, dialects become less intelligible.

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49

language family

way of classifying languages at the global scale. The languages have shared by fairly distant origins. Broken into sub-families. EX) Indo-European language family includes Italian, Spanish, and French

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50

language subfamily

divisions within a language family, the commonalities are more definite and origins more recent. Consists of individual languages with smaller spatial extents and dialects with even smaller spatial extents EX) Indo-European is broken into sub-families of Romance, Germanic, and Slavic

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51

language groups

set of languages with a relatively recent common origin and many similar characteristics EX) Germanic, Romance, Slavic

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52

Indo-European language

a language from the Indo-European family. Spoken by half of the world's people, and includes among others, the Germanic, Romance, and Slavic subfamilies

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53

lingua franca

a language used among speakers of different languages for the purposes of trade and commerce. Can be one language or a mixture.

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54

pidgin language

when people speaking 2 or more languages are in contact and they combine parts of their languages in a simplified structure and vocabulary EX) the first widely known pidgin language is the Frankish language, a mix of Frank tongue with Italian, Greek, Spanish, and Arabic for trade on eastern Mediterranean with Southern Franks.

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55

trade language

a simplified language that develops as a means of communication between two or more groups that do not have a language in common. EX) in SE Asia, Bazaar Malay is Myanmar (Burma) to Indonesia and from the Philippines to Malaysia. It is a lingua franca and simplified form of Chinese

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56

creole language

a pidgin language that has developed a more complex structure and a vocabulary and has become a native language of a group of people EX) Swahili

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57

monolingual states

countries in which everyone speaks the same language EX) Japan, Uruguay, Iceland, Denmark, Portugal, Poland, and Lesotho

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58

multilingual states

countries in which more than one language is in use EX) US

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59

official language

adopted by countries with linguistic fragmentation to tie the people together. Or in colonies, one that ties them to their colonizer.

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60

global language

a common language of trade and commerce used around the world. EX) like lingua franca

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61

linguistic diversity

there are more than 7000 languages spoken today that are created by economic, technological, and ideological globalization. EX) more than 1500 languages are spoken in Sub-Saharan Africa

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62

toponyms

place names. often refer to social progress in the area. May impact how people view the lace. Dominated by 10 themes: descriptive, commendatory, possession, commemorative, associative, incidents, possession, folk, manufactured, mistakes, shift. EX) "Mount Prospect" and "Mount Misery"

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63

religion

a system of beliefs and practices that attempts to order life in terms of culturally perceived ultimate priorities. EX) Baha'i

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64

monotheistic religion

worship a singly deity, God or Allah EX) Islam grew in Northern Africa from 11 to 234 million in 1900 to 2010

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65

Zoroastrianism

monotheistic religion that developed about 3500 years ago in SW Asia. Some believe it was the first monotheistic religion, others say Judaism. EX) The Parsi are Zoroastrianists who moved to India

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66

polytheistic religion

worship more than one deity, even 1000s EX) Hinduism, Vodum/Voodoo

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67

animistic religion

centered on the belief that inanimate objects, such as mts., trees, rivers, and boulders. posses spirits and should be revered. EX) Shamanism

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68

universalizing religions

actively seek converts because they view themselves as offering belief systems and universal appropriateness and appeal. Few in number and of recent origin. EX) Christianity, Buddhism, and Islam

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69

ethnic religion

Adherents are born into the faith and converts are not actively sought. Spatially concentrated, except for Judaism. EX) traditional religions in Africa and SA. Judaism, Hinduism, Confucianism, Shintoism

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70

Hinduism

3rd biggest religion, DID NOT originate in Pakistan, given name by Aryans, no founder, based on ancient practices of Indus River Valley city of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa, sacred river is the Ganges, and their main god is Brahman. Other gods are expressions of Brahman. Not a polytheistic or monotheistic religion, or even both. Vedas is it's 4 sacred texts. Defined as an ethnic religion to SE Asia.

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71

Reincarnation

A soul is reborn and in Hinduism you are moved up and down in the caste system based off your behavior. The goal is to escape reincarnation through union with Brahman. EX) Hinduism

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72

caste system

locks people into particular social classes and imposes many restrictions, especially to those in lower castes

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73

Sikhism

created by interaction of Hinduism and Islam. Didn't like worship of idols and caste system in Hinduism. EX) wear turbans and forbid hair-cutting

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74

Buddhism

came from Hinduism as a question to its teachings (caste system). 2 branches: Mahayan (salvation comes by appeal to holy sources of merit) and Theravada (Salvation is personal matter achieved by good behavoir and being monk or nun). EX) Theravada- Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia. Mahayana- Vietnam Korea, Japan, and China

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75

Shintoism

ethnic religion, related to Buddhism, focuses on nature and ancestor worship EX) Japan

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76

Taoism

traced to older contemporary of Confucius, Lao-Tsu, who published Tao-te-Ching or "Book of Way". EX) China. Avoid competition possession pursuit of knowledge. Evils= war, punishment, takes, and ceremonial ostentation.

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77

Feng-Shui/geomancy

given rise to by "Book of Way". the art and science of organized living spaces in order to channel the life forces that exist in nature in favorable days, done by consulting geomancers- know desires of spirits of ancestors and beings of natural world EX) Shamanism uses geomancers

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78

Confucianism

philosophy of life. Like Taoism, great impacts of Chinese Life. Confucius was appalled by the poor and suffering and urged them to assert themselves. Said virtues and abilities, not heritage, should determine position in society. Altered by emperors over time

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79

Judaism

grew out of the beliefs of Jews, a nomadic semetic tribe in SW Asia. Based off teachings of Abraham. In Middle East, N Africa, Russia, Ukraine, Europe, and N and S America. Monotheistic.

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80

Christianity

single founder (Jesus), split from Judaism, monotheistic, first split: between Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox. Emperor Diocletian split empire eventually leading to separate denominations. Last branch- Protestant (came from Catholic)

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81

Islam

founded by Muhammad, Qu'ran, Allah, monotheistic, 5 pillars, pilgrimage to Mecca/hajj. EX) Most Muslims are in Indonesia

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82

Sunni

majority accept rulers who aren't descendants of Muhammad/Ali. EX) many in US and Europe

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83

Shia/Shi'ite

don't accept rulers who aren't descendants of Muhammad. More centralized hierarchical clergy than Sunni. Imams are the source of knowledge. EX) Iran, Iraq, Palestine, Afghanistan

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84

Shamanism

community faith in which people follow their shaman (religious leader) . small, isolated religion. EX) Africa, Native America, SE Asia, and E Asia.

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85

secularism

the indifference to or rejection of formal religion. EX) 57% of US said religion isn't super important in their lives while 98% of Senegal said the opposite.

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86

Mormonism

Church of the Latter day Saints. Created by Joseph Smith, has similar beliefs to Christianity. Began in NY, then moved to Utah due to persecution.

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87

sacred sites/sacred space

places people infuse with religious meaning (reverence or fear). If infused with reverence, a pilgrimage may be made to the place.

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88

religious toponym

the origins and meanings of the names of religions EX) St. Peter's Basilica- burial site for Catholic tradition

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89

interfaith boundaries

the boundaries between the world's major faiths. subject to potentially divisive cultural forces. EX) several countries in Africa that straddle the Christian- Muslim boundary EX) Israel, Palestine, Nigeria, former Yugoslavia

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90

intrafaith boundaries

the boundaries within a single major faith. Divisions between: Catholics and Protestants (especially in N Ireland), Muslim Sunni and Shia

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91

enclave

when a community or group is trapped and surrounded by unfriendly population or government. EX) the Gaza strip in Israel where Muslims are surrounded by the Jewish population and government

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92

exclave

a portion of a country not connected to the main part physically EX) Alaska

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93

genocide

A mass killing of people EX) Holocaust

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94

ethnic cleansing

a mass killing of a specific group of people EX) Serbian campaign for ethnic cleansing of Kosovo Albanians (Muslims) who demanded autonomy.

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95

theocracy

a government in which religion rules Ex) Taliban

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96

religious fundamentalism

born over perceived breakdown of society's morals and values. hold to religious beliefs. EX) Traditionalism Catholic Movement- preach in Latin and don't recognize the Pope and the Vatican

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97

religious extremeism

religious fundamentalism carried to the point of violence EX) 9-11, extremist Jews who are for anti-Arabism (Kahane Chai), and Taliban

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98

Shari'a Law

the legal framework within public and some private aspects of life are regulated for those living in a legal system based on Muslim principles

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99

jihad

Islamic holy way against West, US in particular. Promoted by Taliban in Afghanistan because provided haven for Islamic extremeists EX) 9-11

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100

Zoroastrianism

world's oldest monotheistic religion

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