Exam 2 - week 6

studied byStudied by 4 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Glycogen

1 / 153

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

154 Terms

1

Glycogen

A storage polysaccharide in animals it’s stored, mainly in liver and muscle cells

New cards
2

Hydrolysis of glycol in the cells releases what

Glucose, when the demand for sugar increases

New cards
3

Cellulose

A polysaccharide, a major component of the tough wall of plant cells

New cards
4

Cellulose is a polymer of what

Glucose

New cards
5

Chitin

Structural polysaccharide found in the exoskeleton of arthropods, provide structural support for the cell walls of many fungi

New cards
6

Lipids

One class of large biological molecules that does not include true polymers

New cards
7

How do lipids mix with water?

They mix very poorly, if at all

New cards
8

What do lipids consist mostly of?

Hydrocarbon regions

New cards
9

What are the biologically important lipids?

Fats, phospholipids, and steroids

New cards
10

Fats

Constructed from two types of smaller molecules, glycerol and fatty acids

New cards
11

Glycerol consists of what

3-carbon alcohol with a hydroxyl group attached to each carbon

New cards
12

Fatty acid consist of what

Carboxyl group attached to a long carbon skeleton

New cards
13

Saturated fatty acids have

Have the max number of hydrogen atoms possible, and no double bonds, straight, solid at room temp

New cards
14

Unsaturated fatty acids have

One or more double bonds, kinked, liquid at room temp

New cards
15

What are saturated fats?

Fats made from saturated fatty acids and are solid at room temperature

New cards
16

What are unsaturated fats?

Fats made from unsaturated fatty acids and liquid at room temperature

New cards
17

Hydrogenation

Process of converting unsaturated fats to saturated fats by adding hydrogen

New cards
18

What is the major function of fats?

Energy storage for humans and mammals for long-term food reserves

New cards
19

Phospholipid

Two fatty acids, and a phosphate group or attached to glycerol

New cards
20

What happens when phospholipids are added to water?

They self assemble into double layer, sheets, called bilayers at the surface of a cell

New cards
21

What do bilayers form?

Boundary between cells and environment

New cards
22

Steroids

Lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings

New cards
23

Cholesterol

Type of steroid component in animal cell membranes in a precursor from which other steroids are synthesized

New cards
24

Enzymes are what

Proteins that act as catalyst to speed up chemical reactions, they can perform functions, repeatedly functioning as work horses that carry out processes of life

New cards
25

Polypeptides or what

Unbranched polymers built from amino acids

New cards
26

Amino acids

Organic molecules with amino and carbon groups

New cards
27

Peptide bonds

Amino acids linked by covalent bonds

New cards
28

Polypeptide is a polymer of what

Amino acids

New cards
29

What does the sequence of amino acids determine?

A proteins 3-D structure

New cards
30

What does a protein structure determine?

How it functions

New cards
31

What are the four levels of protein?

Primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure, quaternary structure

New cards
32

Primary structure of protein

It’s unique sequence of amino acids

New cards
33

Secondary structure of protein

Found in most proteins, consist of coils and folds in polypeptide chain

New cards
34

Tertiary structure of protein

Determined by interactions among various side chains (R groups)

New cards
35

Quaternary structure of proteins

Results when a protein consist of multiple polypeptide chains from one macromolecule

New cards
36

What are the 2-D levels of protein structure?

Primary structure and secondary structure

New cards
37

What is primary structure determined by?

Inherited genetic info, like the order of letters in a long word

New cards
38

What do the coils and folds in secondary structure result from

Result from hydrogen bonds between repeating constituentsof polypeptide backbone

New cards
39

What are the 3-D levels of protein structures?

tertiary structure and quaternary structure

New cards
40

Interactions of tertiary structures

Hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, hydrophobic interactions, and van der waals interactions

New cards
41

Denaturation

Loss of proteins, native structure, biologically, inactive

New cards
42

Nucleic acids do what

Store transmit and help express hereditary info

New cards
43

Gene

Consist of DNA, amino acid sequence of polypeptide is programmed by a unit of inheritance called gene

New cards
44

Nucleic acid is made of what

Nucleotides

New cards
45

What are the two types of nucleic acid?

DNA and RNA

New cards
46

Deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA)

Provides directions for its own replication, direct synthesis of Messenger RNA(mRNA)

New cards
47

Gene expression

A process in which DNA uses mRNA to control protein synthesis

New cards
48

What is the flow of genetic info?

DNA→ RNA → protein

New cards
49

Polynucleotides

Nucleic acids that are polymers, made of monomers called nucleotides

New cards
50

What does each nucleotide of a polynucleotide consist of?

Nitrogen base, a pentose sugar, one or more phosphate groups

New cards
51

Nucleoside

The proportion of a nucleotide without the phosphate group (nucleoside= nitrogen base+ sugar)

New cards
52

What are the two families of nitrogen bases?

Pyrimidines (cytosine, thymine and uracil)

Purines (adenine and guanine)

New cards
53

Deoxyribose

Sugar in DNA

New cards
54

Ribose

Sugar in RNA

New cards
55

What are nucleotides linked by?

A Phosphodiester linkage to build a polynucleotide

New cards
56

Phosphodiester linkage

Consists of a phosphate group that links the sugars of 2 nucleotides which create the backbone of sugar

New cards
57

DNA structure

DNA molecules have two polynucleotides spiraling around imaginary axis forming a double helix

New cards
58

Anti-parallel (DNA structure)

When backbone run in opposite directions from each other

New cards
59

What does one DNA molecule include

Many genes

New cards
60

Complementary base pairing- Only certain bases in DNA pair up and form hydrogen bonds, which are

Adenine (A) with thymine (T) and guanine (G) with cytosine (C)

New cards
61

RNA Structures

Single stranded, complementary pairing can also occur between two or in a molecules or between two parts of the same molecule it’s more variable form compared to DNA

New cards
62

RNA pairings

Uracil (U) and Adenine(A)

New cards
63

Nucleus contains most of DNA in what cells

Eukaryotic cells

New cards
64

Ribosomes use info from the DNA to make what

Proteins

New cards
65

Nucleus contains

Most of the cells genes, and is usually the most conspicuous organelle

New cards
66

Nuclear envelope

Encloses the nucleus, separating it from side of plasm, is a double membrane, each membrane consists of lipid viler

New cards
67

Pores

Regulate entry and exit of molecules from the nucleus

New cards
68

Nuclear matrix

Framework of protein, fiber throughout the interior of the nucleus

New cards
69

Chromosomes

Units in which DNA organized within the nucleus

New cards
70

Chromatin

Each chromosome contains one DNA molecule associated with proteins

New cards
71

Chromatin condenses to form what

Discrete chromosomes as a cell repairs to

New cards
72

Nucleolus

Located within the nucleus - site of RNA synthesis

New cards
73

Ribosomes

Complexes made of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) protein

New cards
74

What two locations do ribosomes build proteins in

Cytosol (free ribosomes), on the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum or nuclear envelope (bound ribosomes)

New cards
75

Ribosomes can alternate between

Being free and bound

New cards
76

Endomembrane system consist of

Nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, and plasma membrane

New cards
77

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

Accounts for more than half of the total membrane in many eukaryotic cells, is continuous with the nuclear envelope

New cards
78

Two regions of the ER

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum, rough endoplasmic reticulum

New cards
79

Smooth ER

Lacks ribosomes, synthesizes lipids, detoxifies, drugsand poisons, stores calcium ions

New cards
80

Rough ER

Membrane factory for cell - Surface stud with ribosomes, has bound ribosomes, distributes, transport vehicles, proteins and surrounded by membranes

New cards
81

Golgi apparatus

Consist of flatten membranous sax called cisternae

New cards
82

Golgi apparatus modifies what

Products of the ER and manufactures certain macromolecules, sorts and packages materials into transport vesicles

New cards
83

Lysome

Membranous sac of hydroytic enzymes that can digest macromolecules

New cards
84

Lysol enzymes work best in what type of environment inside the lysosome

Anesthetic environment

New cards
85

Phagocytosis

When one cell engulf another cell forming a food vacuole

New cards
86

Why do you lysosomes use enzymes?

To recycle cells own organelles and macromolecules using a process called autophagy

New cards
87

Vacule

Large vehicles, derived from ER and Golgi apparatus

New cards
88

Mitochondria

Sites of cellular respiration, the metabolic process that uses oxygen to generate ATP

New cards
89

What cells is ATP found in

Animal and plant cells

New cards
90

Chloroplast

Site of photosynthesis, found in plant and algae

New cards
91

Peroxisomes

Oxidative organelles

New cards
92

Mitochondrial matrix

Where metabolic steps of cellular respiration or catalyze

New cards
93

Tannins

Compounds produced in most plants that defend the plant against herbivores and protect the plant from UV rays

New cards
94

Tannosome

Organelle, forming condensed tannins in the chlorophyllous organs of tracheophyta

New cards
95

Thylakoids

Inside, chloroplast swell and pearl to form spheres(the tannosomes)

New cards
96

peroxisomes

Specialized metabolic compartments, bounded by single membranes

New cards
97

Peroxisomes contain what

Enzymes that remove hydrogen atoms from very substances, transfer them to oxygen which forms, hydrogen peroxide, and enzymes of peroxisome convert to water

New cards
98

Cytoskeleton

Network of fibers, extending throughout cytoplasm, which organizes structures in activities in the cell

New cards
99

Three types of molecular structures of cytoskeleton

Microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments

New cards
100

Microtubules

Thickest, hollow, cell shape and motility, chromosome movements in cell division, organelle movements

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 25 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 88 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
note Note
studied byStudied by 31 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard49 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard52 terms
studied byStudied by 18 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard35 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard40 terms
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard110 terms
studied byStudied by 88 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard87 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard73 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)