bio final sem 1

studied byStudied by 48 people
5.0(1)
get a hint
hint

How many neurons do you have?

1 / 121

Tags and Description

122 Terms

1

How many neurons do you have?

100 billion

New cards
2

What Is biology?

The study of life

New cards
3

What are the charecteristics of life?

energy input and output - order- reproduction - growth and development - response to the environment - regulation (homeostasis) - adaptation

New cards
4

What is the hierarchy of living things?

atom, molecule, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere

New cards
5

what are the 2 types of cells

prokaryotic (single cellular) and eukaryotic (multicellular)

New cards
6

Which cells have a nucleus?

ONLY eukaryotic cells have a nucleus but both have a membrane

New cards
7

What is CER formatting

claim, evidence, reasoning

New cards
8

Observation vs. Inference

Observation- using your senses to know or determine something

New cards
9

Inference

making alogical conclusion based on your observation

New cards
10

Hypothesis format

As (subject that you are testing on) IV, the prediction - DV.

New cards
11

IV and DV

IV - ex the temperature

DV - How much mold grows on the bread

New cards
12

Bar graph

x-asis = IV, y-axis = DV, include key when necessary

New cards
13

line graph

same as bar graph but uses points connected as a line

New cards
14

Homeostasis feedback

negative - body responds to the stimuli to get the body back in normal ranges

Positive - body increases response to stop stimuli

New cards
15

The big four elements

HONC Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, make up 96% of all living matter

New cards
16

Proton, nutron, electron

Proton - positive

Electron - negative

Neutron - neutral

New cards
17

How many electrons can the Borh diagram rings hold?

1st - 2 Electrons

2nd - 8 electrons

3rd - 18 electrons

New cards
18

Lewis structure

shows the number of valence electrons (outermost) ring of Borh diagram

New cards
19

Ionic bonds

1 or more electrons get passed to another element, very weak, usually between metal and nonmetal

New cards
20

Covalent Bonds

electrons are shared equally, very strong, usually between 2 nonmetals

New cards
21

Covalent bonds - polar

shares electrons unequally

New cards
22

Hydrogen bonds

weak on their own, strong when many

New cards
23

Reactants and products

Reactions - ingredients

New cards
24

products

- ending results

New cards
25

Organic and inorganic molecules

Organic - carbon based

New cards
26

Inorganic

  • non-carbon based

New cards
27

dehydration reaction

every time a monomer is added to the chain water is released.

New cards
28

hydrolysis

Process of breaking down a polymer

New cards
29

polymers of life

  1. Carbohydrates

  2. lipids

  3. proteins

  4. nucleic acids

New cards
30

Carbohydrates

natural sugars that your body uses, always contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (not nitrogen)

New cards
31

Monosaccharides

glucose, fructose, galactose

New cards
32

What is the Carbohydrate ratio

1 carbon: 2 hydrogen: 1 oxygen

New cards
33

Formula for glucose

C6 H12 O6

New cards
34

What are disaccharides?

two monosaccharides bonded together

EX - Sucrose, lactose, Maltose

New cards
35

What are polysaccharides?

large polymer chains made of monosaccharides

EX - Starch, glycogen, cellulose

New cards
36

What do proteins do?

Day-to-day functions, carry oxygen, make up fur, make muscles, and help with long term nutrient storage

New cards
37

What are amino acids?

building blocks of proteins

New cards
38

Building a protein

Dehydration reaction when bonding because H2O is released and a polypeptide chain is formed.

New cards
39

Denturation

loss of normal shape of a protein due to heat or other factor

New cards
40

activation energy

Chemical reaction

New cards
41

What are enzymes?

Proteins that speed up chemical reactions

New cards
42

What are lipids?

"water avoiding" molecules

New cards
43

unsaturated vs saturated fats

SATURATED - All carbon atoms on the chain are filled with hydrogen atoms

EX - Butter

UNSATURATED - contain less than the max number of hydrogen

EX - Fish, vegetable oil, veggies

New cards
44

Steroids

Circulate in your body as chemical signals

New cards
45

Nucleic acids

DNA and RNA - "the genetic code"

New cards
46

Properties of water

  1. Polar Molecule

  2. water is cohesive/adhesive

  3. water has a high surface tension

  4. high specific heat (boiling point)

  5. water stabilizes temp

  6. less dense as solid than liquid

New cards
47

valence electrons

atoms want 8 valence electrons except for hydrogen it wants 2

New cards
48

best macromolecule for a runner

carbs because they can be used quickly, proteins are better for long term storage

New cards
49

Anton Van Leewenoek

first to see micro organisms

New cards
50

Robert Hooke

coined the term "cell"

New cards
51

cell theory

idea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and new cells are produced from existing cells

New cards
52

Organelle

A tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell

New cards
53

plasma membrane

A selectively-permeable phospholipid bilayer forming the boundary of the cells

New cards
54

Nucleus

A part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction

New cards
55

Mitochondria

Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production

New cards
56

Ribosomes

site of protein synthesis

New cards
57

Free Ribosomes -

travel around cell

New cards
58

Bound Ribosomes -

attached to the ER

New cards
59

ER

where proteins are made

New cards
60

Rough ER -

has ribosomes attached, creates and ships proteins

New cards
61

Smooth ER -

No Ribosomes, makes carbs and lipids

New cards
62

Golgi apparatus

A system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell

New cards
63

Lysosomes

cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell

ONLY ANIMAL CELLS

New cards
64

Vacuole

storage area of the cell

New cards
65

Microtubules

Spiral strands of protein molecules that form a tubelike structure

New cards
66

Microfilaments

Long, thin fibers that function in the movement and support of the cell

New cards
67

Cyto

Cell

New cards
68

Cytoplasm

A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended

New cards
69

Chloroplast

An organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs

ONLY PLANT CELLS

New cards
70

concentration gradient

high to low concentration

New cards
71

Diffusion

passive, uses kinetic energy, concentration gradient

New cards
72

facilitated diffusion

passive, uses kinetic energy Movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels

New cards
73

Osmosis

passive, uses kinetic energy diffusion of water

New cards
74

active transport

active, uses ATP energy, goes against concentration gradient

New cards
75

Exocytosis

release of substances out a cell by the fusion of a vesicle with the membrane.

New cards
76

Endocytosis

process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane

New cards
77

Chloesterol

Stabilizer important for building cells

New cards
78

transport proteins

allows proteins to flow through membrane

New cards
79

Glycoproteins

receive chemical messages from other cells

New cards
80

osmosis

water goes from higher concentration to lower concentration

New cards
81

Hypertonic

more water ends up outside of cell

New cards
82

Hypotonic

more water ends up inside cell

New cards
83

Photosynthesis

Conversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy.

New cards
84

Atotroph

self feeding

New cards
85

Photoautotrophs

uses light from the sun to fee itself

New cards
86

Photosynthesis equation

6CO2 + 6H2O --> light energy --> C6H12O6 + 6O2

New cards
87

Chlorophyll

Green pigment in plants that absorbs light energy used to carry out photosynthesis

New cards
88

Stomata

Small openings on the underside of a leaf through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move

New cards
89

Stroma

fluid portion of the chloroplast; outside of the thylakoids

New cards
90

Thylakoid

small disks suspended in stroma

New cards
91

Granum

stack of thylakoids

New cards
92

Step 1 of photosynthesis

light reaction

reactants- light energy water

products- ATP, NADPH, oxygen

New cards
93

Step 2 of photosynthesis

Calvin Cycle (inorganic, to organic, back to inorganic)

reactants- CO2, NADPH, ATP

products- glucose

New cards
94

alcoholic fermentation

A process used by yeast cells and some bacteria to produce carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol, uses no oxygen and is only done by prokaryotes

New cards
95

lactic acid fermentation

the chemical breakdown of carbohydrates that produces lactic acid as the main end product EX sore muscles

New cards
96

Step 1 of cellular respiration

glycolysis ; breaking down sugar

NET ATP TOTAL 2

New cards
97

Step 2 of cellular respiration

Krebs cycle

Reactants- pyruvate & coenzyme A

Products- 4co2, 2 atp, 2 nadh, 2 fadh2

NET ATP TOTAL 2

New cards
98

Step 3 of cellular respiration

electron transport chain ETC

electrons are bumped down chain to create ATP and water

NET TOTAL ATP 34

New cards
99

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid, genetic code, found in nucleus

New cards
100

Traits of DNA

  • Double helix shape

  • DNA is coiled up tightly and turned into cxhromosomes

  • every cell has entire strand of DNA

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 214 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 39 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard32 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard61 terms
studied byStudied by 53 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard52 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard296 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard51 terms
studied byStudied by 83 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard48 terms
studied byStudied by 33 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 21 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard49 terms
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)