biology midterm

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biology

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9th grade midterm for Mrs.Judy

209 Terms

1

biology

the study of life

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scientific method

1.) Make observations

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2.) Ask questions

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3.) Perform research

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4.) Create hypothesis

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5.) Test your hypothesis (by conducting an experiment)

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6.) Analyze results and draw conclusion

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7.) Present findings

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quantitative data

  • numbers (quantity)

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  • Easily measured

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qualitative reasoning

  • observation that can not be measured, for ex.) texture, color, shape, etc. (quality)

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  • Not easily measured

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SI units/metric system

Length = meters (m)

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Volume = liters (L)

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Mass = grams (g)

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Time = seconds (s)

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Temperature = degrees Celsius (℃)

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metric system vs. English system

The metric system operates in units of 10, making it more precise and more accurate

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metric conversions - both ways

Kilo/ K

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I

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Hecto/h

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I

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Deca/ da

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I

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Base Unit

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m/g/L

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I

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Deci/d

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I

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Centi/c

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I

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Milli/m

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Examples)

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1.) 15.8 dm = 0.158 dam

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2.) 5.67 mL = 0.00567 L

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3.) 1,862 hg = 1,862,000 dg

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observation vs. inference

Observation = use senses to gather

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  • Info gathered = data

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Inference = created from your data and observations based on what you see

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hypothesis

possible explanation for observations gathered and tested through a controlled experiment

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  • If..., then

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controlled experiment

  • How we test our hypothesis

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  • Only change one variable

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control vs. experimental group

Control group - exposed to all of the same conditions except for the independent variable

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  • "Normal" conditions

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  • "Placebo"

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  • ex.) plant exposed to sunlight

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Experimental group - being observed and changes in response to the independent variable

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  • ex.) groups exposed to different colored lights

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independent variable

  • what is changed/ manipulated

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  • being tested

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  • ex.) light color on flowers

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dependent variable

  • what changes in response to the independent variable

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  • what is measured

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  • usually last sentence of description

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  • ex.) plant height

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variables vs. constants

Variables - any characteristics that can take on different values, such as height, age, temperature, or test scores

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Controlled - only change one variable

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Constant - a variable that remains the same across all groups

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conclusion

summary of results saying what they found that they then share to the rest of the science community

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Graphing Data/ Placement of independent and dependent variables on graph

Independent variable - x axis

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Dependent variable - y axis

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Microscope Types

Compound light microscope (what we use) - can see bother living and non-living things

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  • requires a stain

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Electron Microscopes - only can observe non-living things

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Transmission electron microscope - can see internal structure of a cell

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Scanning electron microscope - produces 3D images

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homeostasis

  • maintaining stable internal conditions

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  • ex.) sweating, shivering

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evolution/adaptation

  • occur over multiple generations

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  • ex.) Darwin's finches/ rattlesnakes and feral hogs

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metabolism

the chemical reactions in the body's cells that change food into energy

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Characteristics of all living things

1.) Cells

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2.) Maintain homeostasis

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3.) Adapt or evolve over time

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4.) Reproduction

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5.) Growth and development

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6.) Genetic material

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7.) Require energy

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8.) Respond to stimuli

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9.) Organization

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Levels of organization in biology

1.) Atom

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2.) Molecule

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3.) Organelles

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4.) Cells

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5.) Tissues

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6.) Organ

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7.) Organ system

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8.) Organism

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Parts and charge of an atom

  • Protons = positive charge (+)/ located in the nucleus

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  • Neutrons = neutral (no charge)/ located in the nucleus

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  • Electrons = negative charge (-)/ located on the outer orbits

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Determine the number of p,n.e of a neutral atom or an ion

  • Equal number of protons and electrons

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  • the number of neutrons does not matter

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