ap bio part 1 review

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Radioactive Isotope

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148 Terms

1

Radioactive Isotope

One in which the nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off particles and energy. Can decay to a different element. Have useful applications.

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Energy

Capacity to cause change

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Potential Energy

Energy matter possesses because of its location or structure. Electrons have this based on distance from nucleus.

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4

Electron Shells

Where electrons are found, each with characteristic average distance and energy level. Electrons can change these by absorbing or losing energy.

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5

Valence Electrons

Electrons in the outermost shell.

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Chemical Bonds

The attraction that holds atoms together during an interaction.

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7

Covalent Bond

Sharing of a pair of valence electrons by two atoms.

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8

Molecule

Two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds.

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9

Single Bond

One pair of shared electrons.

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10

Structural Formula

H--H. Notation which represents both atoms and bonding.

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11

Double Bond

Sharing two pairs of valence electrons.

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Valence

Bonding capacity. Equal to the number of unpaired electrons required to complete the outermost (valence) shell.

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13

Electronegativity

The attraction of a particular kind of atom for the electrons of a covalent bond.

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Nonpolar Covalent Bond

Covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally.

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15

Polar Covalent Bond

Where one atom is bonded to a more electronegative atom and the electrons of the bond are not shared equally.

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Ionic Bonds

The attraction of cations and anions. The transfer of electrons creates ions which form an ionic bond.

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17

Ion

A charged atom.

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Cation

A positively charged atom.

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19

Anion

A negatively charged atom.

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Ionic Compounds

Or Salts. Compounds formed by ionic bonds.

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Hydrogen Bond

When a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to an electronegative atom is also attracted to another electronegative atom.

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van der Waals Interactions

Ever changing regions of positive and negative charge that enable all atoms and molecules to stick to one another.

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Molecular Shape

Determines how biological molecules recognize and respond to one another.

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Reactants

The starting materials of a chemical reaction.

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Products

The resulting material of a chemical reaction.

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Chemical Equilibrium

The point at which the relative concentrations of the products and the reactants stop changing and offset one another exactly.

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organic chemistry

The study of carbon & hydrogen compounds (organic compounds).

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carbon

this atom has 4 electrons in valence shell and can form 4 covalent bonds with other atoms

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hydrocarbon

An organic molecule consisting only of carbon and hydrogen.

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isomer

One of several compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and therefore different properties. The three types are structural, geometric, and enantiomers.

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structural isomer

One or several compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in the covalent arrangement of their atoms. (DIFFERENT SHAPE)

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geometric isomer

One of several compounds that have the same molecular formula and covalent bonds between atoms but differ in the spatial arrangements of their atoms owing to the inflexibility of double bonds (DIFFERENT ARRANGEMENT)

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enantiomer

One or two compounds that are mirror images of each other and that differ in shape due to the presence of an asymmetric carbon. (MIRROR IMAGE)

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estradiol

A steroid hormone that stimulates the development and maintenance of the female reproductive system and secondary sex characteristics; the major estrogen in mammals.

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35

testosterone

Asteroid hormone required for development of the male reproductive system, spermatogenesis, and male secondary sex characteristics; the major androgen in mammals.

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36

functional groups

A specific configuration of atoms commonly attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and involved in chemical reactions.

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hydroxyl group

A chemical group consisting of an oxygen atom joined to a hydrogen atom. Molecules possessing this group are soluble in water and are called alcohols.

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38

ketone group

A chemical group consisting of a carbon double bonded to oxygen (must be in middle of chain)

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39

ester group

A chemical group consisting of a carbon double bonded to oxygen and single bonded to another oxygen (must be in middler of chain)

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aldehyde group

A chemical group consisting of a carbon double bonded to oxygen and single bonded to hydrogen (must be at end of chain)

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carboxyl group

A chemical group consisting of a single carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group

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42

ionized carboxyl group

A chemical group consisting of a single carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a negatively charged oxygen

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amino group

A chemical group consisting of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms can act as a base in solution, accepting a hydrogen ion and acquiring a charge of 1⁺

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sulfhydryl group

A chemical group consisting of a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom.

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phosphate group

A chemical group consisting of a phosphate atom bonded to four oxygen atoms; important in energy transfer.

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46

Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids

Name the 4 types of macromolecules

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47

Metabolism

All the chemical conversions that occur within a cell

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Metabolism = anabolism + catabolism

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50

Catabolism

Conversion of complex organic molecules into smaller molecules by breaking chemical bonds

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Anabolism

Conversion of small organic molecules by forming chemical bonds between smaller molecules

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52

Hydrolysis

Pocess that is the reverse of dehydration synthesis. In __________, or water breakage, the bond between monomers is broken by the addition of a water molecule.

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Dehydration synthesis

Reaction in which two molecules are covalently bonded, with the loss of a water molecule

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Polymers

Long molecules consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds.

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55

Glycosidic linkage

In carbohydrates, monosaccharides are joined together in a covalent bond called __________ _______.

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Monosaccharides

Carbohydrates are made up of _______________.

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Monosaccharide

The monomer in a carbohydrate is a(n) ______________.

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EX: Glucose

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Disaccharide

Two monosaccharides covalently bonded form a ____________.

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EX: Sucrose

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Polysaccharide

Three or more monosaccharides linked together form a ______________.

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Glycosidic linkage

The bond in a carbohydrate is a(n) __________ _______.

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Chitin; cellulose

Two examples of structural carbohydrates are ______ and _________.

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Cellulose

Polymer of β glucose monomers that is found in plant cell walls

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Glycogen; starch

Stored carbohydrate in an animal is called ________; in a plant, it is ______.

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α glucose

Starch and glycogen are polymers of ________ molecules.

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Polymers

Lipids are the only large biological molecules that do not form __________.

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70

Lipids

Cushioning of organs, insulation, and energy storage are three functions of ___________.

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Glycerol; fatty acid chains

Triglyceride is composed of a ______ and three ____ _____ ______.

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Unsaturated fats

Fats with one or more double covalent bonds, which is less likely to solidify and more flexible.

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Phospholipid

Basic structural component of cell membranes, with a polar/hydrophilic head region and a nonpolar/hydrophobic tail region, giving membranes their selective permeability.

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Steroid

Lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of hydrogen-fused rings.

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HDL

Good cholesterol is called ___ ____________.

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HINT: Keep your ____ HIGH :-)

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LDL

The bad cholesterol, which can harden in arteries.

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HINT: Keep your ____ LOW :-)

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81

Ester linkage

In a triglyceride, the ---OH of glycerol loses a H and the ---COOH of the fatty acid chain loses a ---OH which joins to form water in a(n) _____ _______.

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Amino acid

The monomer in a protein is a(n) _____ ____.

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Amino; carboxyl; R

Amino acids are formed of a(n) _____ group with a(n) ________ group and a(n) _ group side chain.

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84

20

# different amino acids which can assemble according to genetic code to make different proteins.

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85

Peptide

In a _______ bond, the ---COOH group in one amino acid loses an ---OH and the ---NH2 group in another amino acid loses a H.

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Polypeptide

The polymer in a protein is a(n) ___________.

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3D structure

The amino acid sequence ultimately determine the __ _________ of proteins.

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Structure

A protein's _________ determines its function.

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Primary

At the _______ level of protein structure, a linear sequence of amino acids is joined by peptide bonds to form a polypeptide.

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Secondary

At the _________ level of protein structure, hydrogen bonds form between the partial positive hydrogen atom of amine groups and the partial negative oxygen atom of carboxyl groups.

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β Pleated Sheet

__ ___________ ______________ are a secondary structure found in proteins.

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92

α Helix

___ ___________ are a secondary structure found in proteins.

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Tertiary

At the ________ level of protein structure, various chemical associations in precise regions of a polypeptide cause it to fold into a 3D shape that will determine its function.

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Quaternary

At the __________ level of protein structure, 2 to 4 completely formed polypeptides combine.

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95

Sickle cell anemia

In this disease, one amino acid at the primary level (valine) replaces glutamic acid and the result is a distorted shape at the subsequent levels.

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96

Hormonal

Insulin and glucagon are examples of _________ proteins.

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97

Receptor

________ proteins are embedded in all membranes and allow cells to interact with molecules and other cells.

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98

Contractile/Movement

___________ proteins, such as actin and myosin, are found in muscle cells.

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99

Transport

_____________ proteins move molecules into and out of cells.

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100

Defensive

_________ proteins, like antibodies, are produced in response to antigens and bind to them.

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