anatomy final

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system of the body that uses chemical messengers (hormones)

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1

system of the body that uses chemical messengers (hormones)

endocrine

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2

delivers oxygen and nutrients to tissues

cardiovascular

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3

removes and filter excess fluid from tissues

lymphatic

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4

which of the following is similar to units found in DNA + RNA?

ATP

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5

used for changes in blood pressure levels

negative feedback

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6

used for process of childbirth

positive feedback

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7

a bond between an oxygen and a carbon atom is a:

nonpolar covalent

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8

a bond between a hydrogen and an oxygen atom is a:

polar covalent

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9

a bond between a calcium and fluorine atom forms a:

ionic bond

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10

an attraction between the slightly positive side of a polar molecule and the slightly negative side of another polar molecule is a:

hydrogen bond

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11

which of the following is an electrically charged atom?

  1. atom

  2. ion

  3. molecule

  4. electron

ion

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12

which of the following is a subatomic particle

  1. atom

  2. ion

  3. molecule

  4. electron

electron

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13

the smallest particle of an element that retains its properties is an:

atom

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14

the smallest particle of a compound that still retains its properties is a :

molecule

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15

water (H2o) is a:

compound

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16

carbon (C) is an:

element

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17

blood is a:

mixture

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18

one of the reactants gains an electron, the other loses one

oxidation-reduction

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19

reactions that break large molecules into smaller ones

decomposition

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20

reactions that build up large molecules from small ones

synthesis

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21

number of protons each element has

atomic number

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22

same atomic number, but different mass number

isotope

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23

combined number of protons and neutrons in an atom

mass number

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24

  1. Neon - Ne (Atomic Number 10, Mass Number 20)

  2. Carbon - C (Atomic Number 6, Mass Number 12)

  3. Oxygen - O (Atomic Number 8, Mass Number 16)

  4. Nitrogen - N (Atomic Number 7, Mass Number 14)

  5. Hydrogen - H (Atomic Number 1, Mass Number 1)

which of the elements above has 6 electrons in its valence shell

oxygen

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25
  1. Neon - Ne (Atomic Number 10, Mass Number 20)

  2. Carbon - C (Atomic Number 6, Mass Number 12)

  3. Oxygen - O (Atomic Number 8, Mass Number 16)

  4. Nitrogen - N (Atomic Number 7, Mass Number 14)

  5. Hydrogen - H (Atomic Number 1, Mass Number 1)

which of the elements above has the ability to form 4 nonpolar covalent bonds

carbon

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26
  1. Neon - Ne (Atomic Number 10, Mass Number 20)

  2. Carbon - C (Atomic Number 6, Mass Number 12)

  3. Oxygen - O (Atomic Number 8, Mass Number 16)

  4. Nitrogen - N (Atomic Number 7, Mass Number 14)

  5. Hydrogen - H (Atomic Number 1, Mass Number 1)

with 14 grams of __, you make a mole of this

nitrogen

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27
  1. Neon - Ne (Atomic Number 10, Mass Number 20)

  2. Carbon - C (Atomic Number 6, Mass Number 12)

  3. Oxygen - O (Atomic Number 8, Mass Number 16)

  4. Nitrogen - N (Atomic Number 7, Mass Number 14)

  5. Hydrogen - H (Atomic Number 1, Mass Number 1)

which of the elements has 1 single electron in its valence shell

hydrogen

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28
  1. Neon - Ne (Atomic Number 10, Mass Number 20)

  2. Carbon - C (Atomic Number 6, Mass Number 12)

  3. Oxygen - O (Atomic Number 8, Mass Number 16)

  4. Nitrogen - N (Atomic Number 7, Mass Number 14)

  5. Hydrogen - H (Atomic Number 1, Mass Number 1)

which element has 10 neutrons in its nucleus

neon

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29

A + B ---> AB + H2O

this reaction is an example of a

dehydration reaction

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30

A + B ---> AB + H2O

what is the main product of this reaction

AB

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31

A + B ---> AB + H2O

A ___ removes hydrogen ions from the solution and a ___ releases hydrogen into a solution

base; acid

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32

what is the main, general purpose of negative feedback

to maintain homeostasis

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33

homeostasis is described as the ability the body has to maintain __

a relatively stable environment under normal healthy circumstances

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34

of the ph numbers listed below which has the highest concentration of H+ ions

  1. pH 14

  2. pH 2

  3. pH 10

  4. pH1

  5. pH 7

pH 1

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35

place the following in the correct sequence from most complex to simplest:

1. molecules 2. Atoms 3.Cells 4. Organs 5. Tissues

4-5-3-1-2

organs, tissues, cells, molecules, atoms

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36

based on the electron shells, which of the following is an unstable or reactive atom

  • 2, 8, 8

  • 2

  • 2, 8, 1

  • 2, 8

  • 2, 8, 18, 8

2, 8, 1

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37

propanoate ( a short chain fatty acid) has a molecular formula of (C3H6O2), what is its molecular mass

74

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38

how many grams of propanoate do you need to make 2.5 grams

185 grams

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39

organic compounds form chains of covalently bonded subunits; for the most part, these bonds between subunits form through ____

dehydration reactions

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40

the group of organic compounds that is characterized by lots of nonpolar covalent bonds and are hydrophobic are the

lipids

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41

A substance with a pH of 3 is 103 (or 1000) times more (basic / acidic) than a substance with a pH of 6.

acidic

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42

each tiplet of DNA is equivalent to a __ of mRNA

codon

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43

what is the final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain

oxygen

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44

a molecule that moves electrons from the citric acid cycle to the electron transport chain is

NADH

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45

the nutrient that most body cells prefer is

glucose

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46

if oxygen is present, how many molecules (net) of ATP are produced by the oxidation of one molecule of glucose

36

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47

where does glycolysis occur

in the cytosol of the cell

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48

the breakdown of glucose to two molecules of pyruvate is known as

glycolysis

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49

which of the following is NOT a lipophobic molecule

  1. a monosaccharide

  2. an amino acid

  3. a nucleotide

  4. steroid

a steroid

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50

chemicals that affect different neighboring cell populations

paracrines

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51

chemicals that are released by neurons across synapses

neurotransmitters

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52

chemicals released by cells into the blood that travel to target cells

endocrines

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53

chemicals that affect neighboring cells of the same type

autocrines

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54

a ___ bond is formed between amino acids and molecules during protein synthesis

peptide bond`

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55

the energy currency of the cell is a molecule called

ATP

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56

what are the components of a nucleotide

phosphate, monosaccharide, nitrogen base

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57

cells produce and respond to chemical and electrical signals as a means of

communicating

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58

the plasma membrane’s function is

regulates movement of materials into and out of the cell

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59

the main components of the plasma membrane are

proteins, lipids, carbohydrates

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60

channel proteins function

provide a tunnel through which ions or molecules can enter or leave the cell

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61

molecules that serve as chemical signals to open or close ligand gated channels are known as

ligands

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62

communication between cells occurs when chemical messengers from one cell bind to __ on another cell

receptor proteins

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63

which of the following is NOT an example of a membrane protein

  1. channel proteins

  2. enzyme proteins

  3. ID markers

  4. glycolipids

  5. receptor proteins

glycolipids

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64

ligand molecules function

attach to receptor proteins

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65

vitamin A, a lipid soluble vitamin, would move across the plasma membrane into the cell ___

by diffusion through the phospholipid bilayer

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66

in the process of diffusion, net movement of substances is always from a region of

higher concentration to lower concentration

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67

osmosis is the diffusion of ___ across a selectively permeable membrane

water

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68

solution A contains 5 grams of sugar per Liter while solution B contains 2 grams of sugar per Liter. \n the solutions are separated by a selectively permeable membrane that is not permeable to sugar molecules.

if the solvent in both solutions is water, predict in which direction most of the water molecules will move

movement by osmosis of solution B to solution A

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69

a red blood cell placed in a hypotonic solution

enlarges

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70

what is one way to increase the rate of mediated transport

increase the number of available carrier molecules

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71

active transport requires ___

ATP

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72

certain cells in the liver ingest bacteria and debris from damaged cells by a process called

phagocytosis

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73

function of the sodium potassium pump in the plasma membrane concerning potassium

actively transports potassium into cells

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74

which transport process requires a carrier molecule but does not use cellular energy

facilitated diffusion

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75

the movement of molecules against their concentration gradient is called

active transport

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76

if a toxic drug inhibited mRNA synthesis, what would be most directly affected

protein synthesis

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77

skeletal muscles need large amounts of ___ to make many proteins they contain

ribosomes

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78

a cell’s ability to replenish ATP is is reduced by a metabolic poison. which organelle is being affected

mitochondrion

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79

mRNA is synthesized when ____

a portion of a DNA molecule is transcribed

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80

the transfer of information from DNA to mRNA is known as

transcription

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81

three adjacent nucleotides in mRNA are called a

codon

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82

a DNA “template strand” sequence is T A C G C G, what would be the transcribed mRNA strand

A U G C G C

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83

if the amino acid coding region of an mRNA molecule is 1800 nucleotides (bases) in length, how many codons does it contain

600

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84

the sequence of nucleotides in mRNA is needed to determine the sequence of

amino acids in a protein

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85

translation requires the pairing of ____

codons on mRNA with anticodons on tRNA

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86

sequence of protein synthesis

transcription, translation, protein synthesis

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87

which of the following is a regulatory protein associated with membrane-bound receptor molecules

  1. ATP

  2. calcium

  3. M protein

  4. G protein

  5. DNA

G protein

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88

which chemical class of hormone is more likely to need a binding protein for transport in the blood

lipid-soluble

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89

up regulation produces an increase in ___

the sensitivity of the target cell to the hormone

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90

the coding strand of a DNA is:

ATG-CCC-AAA-GTA-GCG_TTA-ATT; the pre mRNA molecule is:

AUG-GGG-UUU-CAU-CGC-AAU-UAA

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91

if you introduce a concentration of H+ ions into a neutral solution, this would bring the pH __

down

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92

Determine the sequence of the following events in a cell after exposure of the cell to a steroid \n chemical signal.

  1. increased synthesis of a protein

  2. the chemical signal combined with an intracellular receptor

  3. an increase in the nuclear concentration of the steroid chemical signal

  4. an increase in mRNA synthesis

  5. genes are activated

2, 3, 5, 4, 1

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93

Arrange the following events in proper sequence:

  1. The activating hormone interacts with a membrane-bound receptor.

  2. Adenylate cyclase is activated.

  3. CAMP causes the cell to carry out a function characteristic for that specific hormone.

  4. Adenylate cyclase catalyzes the transformation of ATP to cyclic AMP

1, 2, 4, 3

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94

receptors for most lipid-soluble hormones are located in

the cytoplasm or nucleus of their target cells

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95

a nuclear receptor is likely to bind to a ___ ligand

steroid

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96

which of the following is likely to be produced by phospholipase C

A. DAG

B. cAMP

C. cGMP

D. Na+

E. ATP

DAG

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97

lactic acid fermentation helps the anaerobic cell to produce a few ATP from nutrients by

recycling NADH back to NAD+

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98

hydrogen ions pass through ___ so that it can make ATP by oxidative phosphorylation

ATP synthase

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99

the CNS is made up of

brain + spinal cord

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100

the ___ portion carries information from the PNS to the CNS

afferent + sensory

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