Chem. Vocab. Test Review

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Physical Properties

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37 Terms
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Physical Properties

traits that can be observed or measured without changing the composition of matter.

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Chemical Propterties

how a substance will react with another substance to form new materials.

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Elements

A pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler parts.

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Atoms

Tiny particles in an element

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Protons

Subatomic particles with a positive charge that are found within the middle center (nucleus) of an atom.

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Neutrons

Subatomic particles without charge, also found within the nucleus of an atom.

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Electrons

Subatomic particles with a negative charge, found in circular pathways (orbits) around the nucleus of an atom.

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Periodic Table

Used to represent all elements in existence.

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Element Symbol

composed of either one or two letters of the alphabet, beginning with a capital letter, second letter as lowercase.

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Atomic number

Equal to the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of that element.

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Atomic Mass

Equal to the combined mass of all the protons and neutrons.

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Valence Electrons

All electrons found on the outer shell of atoms.

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Periods

rows of the periodic table, al elements do not have similar chemical properties.

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Groups

columns of the periodic table, all elements have similar chemical properties.

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Families

A group with a specific name. Alkali metals, alkaline metals, chalcogens, halogens, noble gases.

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Alkali Metals

group 1, has 1 valence electron, soft and highly reactive metals.

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Alkaline Metals

group 2, less reactive than alkali, has 2 valence electrons.

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Chalcogens

group 16, non-metals, less reactive than halogens, has 6 valence electrons.

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Halogens

group 17, poisonous and highly reactive non-metals, has 7 valence electrons

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noble gases

group 18, very stable non-metals, unreactive, has 8 valence electrons.

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hydrogen

non-metal gas, has 1 electron, highly reactive

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metals

shiny in appearance, malleable, ductiable

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metalloids

shiny in appearance, poor conductors of heat, non-malleable.

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non-metals

dull in appearance, poor conductors of heat, not ductile.

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matter

anything that has mass and takes up space/volume.

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pure substance

a substance that is made up of the same type of particles.

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mixture

a substance that is made of more than 1 element.

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compound

the simplist form of any material containing 2 or more elements.

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heterogeneous mixture

a substance with particles that are not evenly distributed; individual particles can be found.

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homogeneous mixture

a substance with particles that are evenly distributed; cannot be easily seperated.

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chemical reaction

a movement of electrons between combining atoms that results in the formation of a new substance.

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chemical formula

used to show in an element of compound, the types of atoms present, and amounts of each type of atom present.

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Law of Conservation of Matter

states that in any chemical reaction, matter cannot be created nor destroyed; atoms can only be rearranged to form new compounds.

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physical change

A change in shape or a change in the state of a substance.

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chemical change

when new substances with new properties are formed.

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combustion

when a substance reacts rapidly with oxygen, and releases energy.

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corrosion

when a metal reacts with oxygen from the air to form a new substance called an oxide.

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