Psychology Test 3

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Developmental Psychology

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116 Terms

1

Developmental Psychology

a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span

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2

Nature

the influence of our inherited characteristics on our personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions

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3

Nuture

environment

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4

Zygote

sperm united with egg

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5

Embryo

the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month

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6

Fetus

the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth

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7

Teratogens

agents that harm the embryo or fetus

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8

Synaptic Pruning

the elimination of neurons as the result of nonuse or lack of stimulation

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9

Grasping Reflex

reflex that causes a newborn to grasp vigorously any object touching the palm or fingers or placed in the hand

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10

Rooting Reflex

an infant's response in turning toward the source of touching that occurs anywhere around his or her mouth

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11

Sucking Reflex

reflex that causes a newborn to make sucking motions when a finger or nipple if placed in the mouth

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12

Dynamic Systems Theory

the view that development is a self-organizing process, in which new forms of behavior emerge through consistent interactions between a biological being and cultural and environmental contexts

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13

Preferential Looking Technique

a method for studying visual attention in infants that involves showing infants two patterns or two objects at a time to see if the infants have a preference for one over the other

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14

Infantile Amnesia

the inability to remember events from early childhood

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15

Cognitive Self

something within and cannot be physically seen

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16

Social-cultural Development

language is required to explain experiences

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17

Neurogenic Hypothesis

new neurons in the adult brain are needed for proper mood control and for antidepressant efficacy

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18

Imprinting

the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life

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19

Contact Comfort

the instinctual need to touch and be touched by something soft, such as skin or fur

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20

Secure

to gain control of

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21

Avoidant

attachment style in which they seek little contact with their caregiver and are not distressed when the caregiver leaves

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22

Ambivalent

having mixed feelings or contradictory ideas about something or someone

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23

Strange-situation Test

A parent-infant "separation and reunion" procedure that is staged in a laboratory to test the security of a child's attachment

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24

Oxytocin

a hormone released by the pituitary gland that causes increased contraction of the uterus during labor and stimulates the ejection of milk into the ducts of the breasts

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25

Piaget's Theory

theory stating that children actively construct their understanding of the world and go through four stages of cognitive development

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26

Sensorimotor

describes Piaget's stage in which the child explores the world through interaction of his mouth and hands with the environment

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27

Preoperational

Piaget's second stage of cognitive development, when egocentrism declines

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28

Concrete Operational

in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events

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29

Formal Operational

in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts

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30

Egocentrism

the inability to see the world through anyone else's eyes

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31

Conservation

Protecting and preserving natural resources and the environment

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32

Object Permanence

the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived

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33

Assimilation

new information is placed into an existing schema

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34

Accomodation

create a new schema or drastically alter an existing schema to include new information that otherwise would not fit into the schema

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35

Theory of Mind

people's ideas about their own and others' mental states—about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict

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36

Socioemotional Selection Theory

older people show better memory for positive information

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37

Fluid Intelligence

our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood

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38

Crystallized Intelligence

our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age

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39

Emotions

signals that tell your mind and body how to react

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40

Mood

a temporary state of mind or feeling

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41

Circumplex Model of Emotion

interaction of valence and arousal

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42

Arousal

condition in which the sympathetic nervous system is in control

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43

Valance

The degree to which the reward that you are given is valuable to you

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44

Primary Emotions

emotions that are expressed by people in all cultures

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45

Secondary Emotions

blends of primary emotions, nostalgia

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46

Insula

activated in anger, guilt, and anxiety

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47

Amygdala

process the emotional significance of stimuli

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48

Hippocampus

helps process explicit memories for storage

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49

Hypothalamus

linked to emotion

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50

Fast Path

sensory information travels quickly through the thalamus directly to the amygdala for priority processing

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51

Slow Path

sensory material travels from the thalamus to the cortex, where the information is passed along to the amygdala

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52

James-Lange Theory

the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli

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53

Cannon-Bard Theory

theory proposing that an emotion-provoking event leads simultaneously to an emotion and to bodily reactions

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54

Schacter-Singer Two-Factor Theory

to experience emotion one must be physically aroused and cognitively label the arousal

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55

Facial Feedback Hypothesis

the idea that facial expressions can influence emotions as well as reflect them

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56

Excitation Transfer

the idea that arousal from one event can transfer to a later event

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57

Misattribution of Arousal

occurs when people incorrectly label the source of the arousal that they are experiencing

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58

Affect-as-Information Theory

people use current moods to make judgments and appraisals

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59

Emotional Expression

an observable sign of an emotional state

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60

Emotions Strengthen

interpersonal relations

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61

Four Essential Qualities of Motivational States

energizing, directive, persist, vary in strength

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62

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

physiological, safety, love/belonging, esteem, self-actualization

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63

Drive Reduction Theory

the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need

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64

Homeostasis

A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state

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65

Yerkes-Dodson Law

the principle that performance increases with arousal only up to a point, beyond which performance decreases

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66

Extrinsic Motivation

performing an activity to obtain an external reward or avoid punishment

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67

Intrinsic Motivation

a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake

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68

Incentives

a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior

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69

Self-perception Theory

theory that we acquire our attitudes by observing our behaviors

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70

Self-regulation of Behavior

process by which people change their behavior to attain personal goals

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71

The Achievement Motive

the desire to do well relative to standards of excellence

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72

Self-Efficacy

the expectation that your efforts will lead to success

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73

Need to Belong Theory

the need for interpersonal attachments is a fundamental motive that has evolved for adaptive purposes

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74

Delay of Gratification

declining a pleasant activity now in order to get greater pleasure later

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75

Marshmallow Test

test self-control, can predict academic achievement, SAT scores, drug use, and likability

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76

Cold Cognition

thought processes that occur when under low bodily/emotional arousal/stress

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77

Hot Cognition

emotionally charged situation that can result in an outcome with a high risk or high reward

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78

Nucleus Accumbens

neural pathway that increases dopamine levels. triggers laughter and smiling.

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79

Role of Amygdala

regulates emotions such as fear and aggression and plays a more general role in the formation of emotional memory

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80

Role of Prefrontal Cortex

regulates our thoughts, actions, and emotions through extensive connections with other brain regions

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81

Social Brain Hypothesis

large prefrontal cortexes allow us to live in dynamic and complex social groups

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82

Reciprocity

we must mutually help each other

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83

Transitivity

people generally share their friends' opinions of other people

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84

Outgroup Homogeneity Effect

tendency to view outgroup members as less varied than ingroup members

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85

Medial Prefrontal Cortex

important for thinking about other people, less active when considering outgroup members

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86

Fusiform Face Area

facial recognition

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87

Nucleus Accumbens Group Membership

dopamine release

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88

Insula Group Membership

activated in anger, guilt, and anxiety

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89

Amygdala Group Membership

experiencing emotions

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90

Social Facilitation

improved performance on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others

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91

Social Inhibition

a conscious or subconscious avoidance of a situation or social interaction

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92

Social Loafing

the tendency for people to not work as hard in a group than when working aloneƒ

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93

Social Norms

expected standards of conduct, which influence behavior

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94

The Asch Study

those who fail to comply are rejected

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95

Obedience Influence

a form of compliance that occurs when people follow direct commands, usually from someone in a position of authority

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96

The Milgram Study

ordinary people may do horrible things when ordered to do so by an authority

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97

Prosocial Behavior

positive, constructive, helpful behavior

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98

Altruism

providing help when it is needed, without any apparent reward for doing so

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99

Inclusive fitness

an explanation for altruism that focuses on the adaptive benefit of transmitting genes, such as through kin selection, rather than focusing on individual survival

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100

Kin Selection

the idea that behaviors that help a genetic relative are favored by natural selection

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