Respiration Exam

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SPA3101 Exam 1

247 Terms

1

Isometric

________: contracts a muscle, tension changes but length does not.

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2

Tendons

________: nonelastic fibers that connect muscle to bone.

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3

Ligaments

________: somewhat elastic fibers that connect bone to bone, bone to cartilage, or cartilage to cartilage.

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4

surface tension

The ________ of the fluid in the pleural cavity secures the pleura together.

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5

Sternum Body

________: contains the articulatory notch for ribs 2- 7.

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6

Inspiratory capacity

________: the amount of air that one can inhale from the reset position.

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7

Inhalation

________: When the thoracic cavity expands (through active muscle contraction) lung volume increases (air molecules are less compressed- → negative subglottal pressure- → air flows into the lungs)

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8

External Intercostals

________: rise from lower margin of one rib, run downward and forward to be inserted at the upper margin of the rib below.

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9

Elastic Cartilage

________ is found in: Epiglottis, External part of the ear (pinna), Corniculate cartilages of the arytenoids (larynx)

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10

Trachea

________ breaks into two major stems: bronchi (which supply each side of the lung)

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11

Hyaline Cartilage

________ is found in: nose, flexible ends of ribs, surfaces of bones at joints, cartilages in the larynx (thyroid and cricoid)

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12

mucous membranes

Areolar: forms the "bed "for skin and ________, found almost everywhere in the body.

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13

abdominal muscles

Forced expiration: All expiratory /________ contract pushing against the diaphragm, which is raised.

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14

Apical pleura

________: thickening in the top portion of the lung.

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15

Protective Pleura

________: traumatic puncture results in the collapse of only one lung (pnuemothorax)

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16

Intercostal muscles

________: located between the ribs.

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17

Exhalation

________: When the thoracic cavity reduces size, lung volume decreases (air molecules are compressed- → positive subglottal pressure- → air flows out of the lungs)

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18

Arborize

________: become the bronchial tree; bronchioles.

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19

skeleton

The ________: The framework of the body, which consists of bones and cartilage.

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20

Relationship

________ between subglottic pressure and lung volume is determined when all respiratory muscles are relaxed.

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21

Mediastinum

________: a membranous partition between two body cavities or two parts of an organ, especially that between the lungs.

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22

Axis

________: The 2nd cervical vertebra where head rotations occur.

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23

Potential

________ (stored) energy in the muscles of quiet expiration: resulting from stretched inspiratory muscles is released.

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24

Diaphragm

________: makes up floor of thoracic cavity, separates thoracic cavity from abdominal cavity, most important muscle for inspiration.

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25

internal intercostals

The ________ are the most important respiratory muscles for normal speech and singing, for they are the muscles that propel air out through the mouth and nose.

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26

Speech

________: breathe in, increase volume, decrease pressur of air which is related to how long we can talk.

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27

Larynx

________: Divides the airway into upper and low respiratory tracts.

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28

Trachea last cartilage

________: bifurcates; separates into the main stem bronchi.

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29

Costal Levators

________ Origin: the transverse process of 7th or lowest cervical vertebrae and upper eleventh thoracic vertebrae.

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30

Fibrocartilage

________: Very strong and dense.

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31

Vital capacity

________: the amount of air one can maximally exhale after a maximal inhalation (80 %)

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32

Anatomy

________: The study of the structure of organisms and the relations of their parts.

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33

Lungs

________ are when the vocal folds do something: airtight.

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34

Nervous Tissue

________: monitors and regulates the functions of the body.

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35

air passage

It provides a(n) ________ to help you breathe when the usual route for breathing is somehow blocked or reduced.

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36

Lung volume

________ is increased, intrathoracic air pressure is decreased (less than the atmospheric pressure)

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37

Antagonists

________- muscles that produce opposite movement.

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38

Interpleura space

________: lines inner walls of thoracic cavity and lungs (Important in taking in air)

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39

Vocal folds

________ serve as resistance to increase subglottal pressure.

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40

Ellipsoid condyloid joint

________: Permits movement in all directions except rotation.

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41

Quiet expiration

________: begins when gravity and elastic forces act upon the ribcage, decrease lung volume, increase intrathoracic pressure (more than the atmospheric pressure)

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42

Insertion

________: area of attachment of muscle to bone.

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43

phrenic nerve

Right ________: Passes lateral to the right brachiocephalic vein and the superior vena cava.

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44

expiration

Active Breathing: in speech, controlled and prolonged ________ with rapid inspiration.

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45

Boyles

________ law: inverse relationship between pressure and volume given a constant temperature.

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46

Friction

________ free in relation to pleura: lungs and thoracic surface.

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47

Agonists

________: muscles work together.

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48

Respiration Biological function

________: Exchanging gas in the body.

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49

Ubricates

________ and protects these organs and cavities from abrasive particles and bodily fluids, as well as invasive pathogens.

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50

sternum

The ________ is medial to the arm.

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51

Medial

Toward the midline of the body, which splits the body, head-to-toe, into two halves, the left and the right

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52

Lateral

Relating to the side, lying away from the median axis of the body

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53

Anatomy

The study of the structure of organisms and the relations of their parts

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54

Anterior (ventral)

in the front of the sternum is on the anterior surface of the body

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55

Posterior (dorsal)

in the back of the vertebrae are on the posterior surface of the body

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56

Medial

toward the midline of the body

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57

Lateral

away from the midline of the body

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58

Proximal

closer to any point of reference

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59

Superficial Example

The skin is superficial to the muscles

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60

Sagittal

divides the body into right and left sides

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61

Transverse

horizontal cut (divides the body into superior and inferior portions)

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62

Prone

laying face down

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63

The Cell

The basic structural and functional unit of all living things

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64

Cells are

Highly organized masses of protoplasm (semifluid gel that consists of protein, CHO, Lipids, Nucleic acids and inorganic materials dispersed in water)

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65

Types of Tissue

Epithelial, Muscular, Connective, Nervous, Vascular, Epithelial Tissue

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66

The cells of epithelium form

sheets that cover the external surfaces of the body

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67

Loose connective tissue found

beneath the skin

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68

Areolar

forms the "bed" for skin and mucous membranes, found almost everywhere in the body

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69

Tendons

nonelastic fibers that connect muscle to bone

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70

Ligaments

somewhat elastic fibers that connect bone to bone, bone to cartilage, or cartilage to cartilage

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71

Special Connective

Tissue

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72

Hyaline Cartilage is very important in

studying the speech mechanism

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73

Hyaline Cartilage is found in

nose, flexible ends of ribs, surfaces of bones at joints, cartilages in the larynx (thyroid and cricoid)

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74

Fibrocartilage

Very strong and dense

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75

Elastic Cartilage is found in

Epiglottis, External part of the ear (pinna), Corniculate cartilages of the arytenoids (larynx)

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76

Bone

The most important supporting structure of the body, hard (not flexible like cartilages)

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77

Flat bones

found in the skull, shoulder blades and pelvic girdle

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78

Fibrous Joints

Do not have articulatory space

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79

Cartilaginous Joints

Do not have articulatory space

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80

Spinous process

The spinous process is a piece of bone that comes off the back of the lamina at every level

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81

Symphysis

a place where two bones are closely joined, either forming an immovable joint (as between the pubic bones in the center of the pelvis) or completely fused (as at the midline of the lower jaw)

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82

Synovial Joints

also known as diarthrosis, joins bones or cartilage with a fibrous joint capsule that is continuous with the periosteum of the joined bones, constitutes the outer boundary of a synovial cavity, and surrounds the bones' articulating surfaces

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83

Ball and socket

Consists of a rounded ball-like end of bone that fits into a cup-like cavity in another bone, Movable around a great number of axes

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84

Ball and socket joint examples

hip joint, shoulder joint

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85

Hinge Joint

Permits movement in one plane (flexion and extension)

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86

Ellipsoid-condyloid Joint

An oval-shaped articular facet fits into an elliptical-shaped cavity

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87

Ellipsoid-condyloid joint

Permits movement in all directions except rotation

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88

Muscle Cell

The smallest functional unit of the muscle tissue

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89

Contracts

shortens

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90

Action Potential

Every cell has its equilibrium potential

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91

Action Potential

a sudden large change in the cell polarity that causes a wave of depolarization

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92

All or None Law

Each fiber contracts maximally or not at all

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93

Isometric

contracts a muscle, tension changes but length does not

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94

Origin

place of attachment of a muscle which remains fixed during contraction

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95

Insertion

area of attachment of muscle to bone

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96

Agonists

muscles work together

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97

Antagonists

muscles that produce opposite movement

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98

Nervous Tissue

monitors and regulates the functions of the body

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99

consists of two cells

nerve cells or neurons and glial cells, which helps transmit nerve impulses and also provides nutrients to neurons

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100

Organs

When two or more tissues combine in such a manner as to exhibit functional unity, Performs a special function

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