REVIEW (Unit 3) - Sensation and Perception

studied byStudied by 7 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Sensation

1 / 102

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

103 Terms

1

Sensation

The process by which we receive physical energy from the environment and encode it into neural signals.

New cards
2

Perception

The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events.

New cards
3

Gestalt

A movement/school of thought in psychology founded in Germany in 1912, seeking to explain perceptions in terms of gestalts (or an organized whole) rather than by analyzing their constituents (or individual parts).

New cards
4

Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organization

Provide a set of principles for understanding some of the ways in which perception works.

New cards
5

Similarity

Similar things tend to appear grouped together (both visual and auditory stimuli).

New cards
6

Pragnanz ("Good Figure" or Simplicity)

Objects in the environment are seen in a way that makes them appear as similar as possible.

New cards
7

Proximity

Things that are near each other seem to be grouped together.

New cards
8

Continuity

Points that are connected by straight or curving lines are seen in a way that follows the smoothest path.

New cards
9

Closure

Things are grouped together if they seem to complete some entity.

New cards
10

Common Region/Grouping

Elements that are grouped together within the same region of space tend to be grouped together.

New cards
11

Figure-Ground

The organization of the visual field into objects (the figures) that stand out from their surroundings (the ground).

New cards
12

Depth Perception

The ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two-dimensional; allows us to judge distance.

New cards
13

Visual Cliff

A laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals.

New cards
14

Binocular Cues

Cues that help us judge distance and require the use of both eyes.

New cards
15

Retinal Disparity

Each eye sees a slightly different image because they are about 6 cm apart (on average).

New cards
16

Convergence

When looking at a close-up object, your eyes angle inwards towards each other.

New cards
17

Monocular Cues

Cues that help us judge distance and only require the use of one eye.

New cards
18

Linear Perspective

Parallel lines appear to converge at a vanishing point on the horizon.

New cards
19

Interposition

The partial blocking of one object by another object, leaving the viewer with the perspective that the blocking object is closer.

New cards
20

Relative Size

If two objects are roughly the same size, the object that looks the largest will be judged as being the closest to the observer.

New cards
21

Relative Height

We perceive objects higher in our field of vision as farther away.

New cards
22

Relative Clarity

Clear objects appear closer than blurry or fuzzy objects.

New cards
23

Light and Shadow

Nearby objects reflect more light to our eyes than distant ones.

New cards
24

Texture Gradient

When looking at an object that extends into the distance, the texture becomes less and less apparent the farther it goes into the distance.

New cards
25

Motion Parallax

Objects closer to us appear to move faster than those farther away.

New cards
26

Phi Phenomenon (Stroboscopic Movement)

An illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession.

New cards
27

Relative Motion

As we move, objects that are actually stable may appear to move.

New cards
28

Perceptual Constancy

Our ability and need to perceive objects as unchanging even as changes may occur in distance, point of view, and illumination.

New cards
29

Color Constancy

Perception that the color of an object remains the same even if lighting conditions change.

New cards
30

Size Constancy

Tendency for the brain to perceive objects as the same apparent size regardless of their distance from us.

New cards
31

Shape Constancy

When our viewing angle changes or an object rotates and we still perceive the object as staying the same shape.

New cards
32

Lightness Constancy

When our perception of the whiteness, blackness, and grayness of objects remains constant no matter how much the illumination has changed.

New cards
33

Top-Down Processing

Information processing guided by our thoughts or higher-level mental processes - we move from the general concept to the specific example.

New cards
34

Bottom-Up Processing

Information processing that starts by noticing individual elements and then zooms out to appreciate the whole picture.

New cards
35

Transduction

The conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, this is the transformation of sights, sounds, and smells into neural impulses our brain can interpret.

New cards
36

Absolute Threshold

The minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time.

New cards
37

Difference Threshold (Just Noticeable Difference or JND)

The minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time.

New cards
38

Signal Detection Theory

Your ability or likelihood to detect some stimulus is affected by the intensity of the stimulus and your physical and psychological state.

New cards
39

Sensory Adaptation

Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation.

New cards
40

Gustav Fechner

German philosopher and psychologist who founded the field of psychophysics and studied synesthesia.

New cards
41

David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel

Harvard University researchers who received the Nobel Prize for their discoveries about information processing in the visual system.

New cards
42

Ernst Weber

Noted for Weber's Law, which states that stimuli must differ by a constant "proportion" to be perceived as different.

New cards
43

Perceptual Set

A mental predisposition to perceive or notice some aspects of the available sensory data and ignore others.

New cards
44

Schema

Mental filters or maps that organize our information about the world.

New cards
45

Context Effects

Describes the influence of environmental factors on one's perception of a stimulus.

New cards
46

Cultural Effects

Not all cultures perceive the same stimuli in the same way.

New cards
47

Divided Attention

Focusing on two or more tasks or stimuli.

New cards
48

Selective Attention

The process of directing our awareness to relevant stimuli while ignoring irrelevant stimuli in the environment.

New cards
49

Cocktail Party Effect

The ability to focus your hearing on one specific thing even though noise is all around you.

New cards
50

Stroop Effect

Our brains recognize the color of the word first, which interferes with our ability to read the word aloud.

New cards
51

Inattentional Blindness

Failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere.

New cards
52

Change Blindness

The inability to see changes in our environment when our attention is directed elsewhere.

New cards
53

Wavelength

The distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the next peak.

New cards
54

Amplitude

The wave's height, which measures the intensity of the wave.

New cards
55

Pupil

The adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters.

New cards
56

Iris

The ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye and controls the size of the pupil opening.

New cards
57

Lens

The transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina.

New cards
58

Retina

The light-sensitive inner surface of the eye that contains the receptor rods and cones.

New cards
59

Rods

Retinal receptors that detect black, white, and shades of gray.

New cards
60

Cones

Retinal receptors that detect colors and details.

New cards
61

Fovea

The central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster.

New cards
62

Bipolar cells

Specialized neurons that connect the rods and cones with the ganglion cells.

New cards
63

Ganglion cells

Specialized neurons that connect to the bipolar cells and form the optic nerve.

New cards
64

Optic nerve

The nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain.

New cards
65

Blind spot

The point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a "blind" spot because there are no receptor cells located there.

New cards
66

Feature Detectors

Nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement.

New cards
67

Parallel processing

The brain's natural mode of information processing many things at once, such as color, motion, form, and depth.

New cards
68

Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory

The theory that the retina contains three different color receptors (red, green, and blue) which, when stimulated in combination, can produce the perception of any color.

New cards
69

Opponent-process theory

The theory that opposing retinal processes enable color vision.

New cards
70

Acuity

Sharpness of vision.

New cards
71

Nearsightedness/Myopia

A condition in which nearby objects are seen clearly but distant objects are blurred.

New cards
72

Farsightedness/Hyperopia

A condition in which distant objects are seen clearly but nearby objects are blurred.

New cards
73

Prosopagnosia/Face Blindness

A neurological condition characterized by the inability to recognize faces.

New cards
74

Agnosopsia/Blind Sight

A perceptual phenomenon that occurs when people who have blindness due to damage to the primary visual cortex can still respond to visual stimuli.

New cards
75

Cataracts

A clouding of the eye's lens which results in vision difficulties.

New cards
76

Illusion

A sensory distortion that can fool a person's senses.

New cards
77

Frequency

The number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time.

New cards
78

Pitch

A tone's highness or lowness.

New cards
79

Amplitude

The strength of a wave.

New cards
80

Audition

The sense of hearing.

New cards
81

Outer ear

The part of the ear that traps sound waves and channels them through the auditory canal to the eardrum.

New cards
82

Pinna

The fleshy outside part of the ear.

New cards
83

Auditory canal

The canal in the outer part of the ear down which sound waves travel.

New cards
84

Eardrum

The tight membrane that vibrates when sound waves hit it.

New cards
85

Middle ear

The part of the ear that transmits the eardrum's vibrations to the cochlea.

New cards
86

Inner ear

The innermost part of the ear that contains the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs.

New cards
87

Basilar membrane

A membrane inside the cochlea that vibrates in response to sound.

New cards
88

Auditory nerve

The nerve that sends neural messages to the temporal lobe's auditory cortex.

New cards
89

Place theory

Links pitch we hear with the place where the cochleaā€™s membrane is stimulated.

New cards
90

Frequency theory

States that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch.

New cards
91

Volley principle

Neural cells alternate firing in rapid succession to achieve a combined frequency.

New cards
92

Conduction hearing loss

Hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea.

New cards
93

Sensorineural hearing loss

Hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or auditory nerves.

New cards
94

Cochlear implant

A device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating the auditory nerve.

New cards
95

McGurk Effect

A perceptual phenomenon demonstrating an interaction between hearing and vision in speech perception.

New cards
96

Gustation

The sense of taste, including the 5 basic tastes:sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami.

New cards
97

Papillae

Structures on the tongue where taste buds are located.

New cards
98

Sensory Interaction

The principle that one sense may influence another, such as when the smell of food influences its taste.

New cards
99

Olfaction

The sense of smell.

New cards
100

Odorants

Chemical compounds that have smell.

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 84 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(4)
note Note
studied byStudied by 40 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(4)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 106 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 17 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 25 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard24 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard32 terms
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard40 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard55 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard46 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard21 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)