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Enlightenment

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128 Terms

1

Enlightenment

A philosophical movement in eighteenth century Europe that fostered the belief that one could reform society by discovering rational laws that governed social behavior and were just as scientific as the laws of physics

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2

John Locke

(1632-1704) English political philosopher who argued that governments were created to protect life, liberty, and property and that the people had a right to rebel when a monarch violated these natural rights

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3

The Social Contract

published in 1762, written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau; asserted that the will of the people was sacred and that the legitimacy of monarchs depended on the consent of the people

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4

Stamp Act of 1765

A tax on all legal documents, newspapers, pamphlets, and nearly all printed material in the British colonies

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5

Constitutional Convention, 1787-American Revolution

Meeting in 1787 of the elected representatives of the thirteen original states to write the Constitution of the United States

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6

Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen

Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution

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7

Maximilien Robespierre

A young provincial lawyer who led the most radical phases of the French Revolution. His execution ended the Reign of Terror.

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8

Napoleon Bonaparte

A general who overthrew the French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile

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9

Haitian Revolution, 1789-1804

Due largely to the political turmoil in France, the Haitian Revolution was a violent struggle among ethnic and enslaved groups in an attempt to limit race discrimination (though the abolition of slavery was not the goal of the gens de couleur). The struggle resulted in the independence of Haiti after Napoleon's troops failed to suppress the revolt.

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10

Congress of Vienna, 1815

Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon I

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11

Revolution of 1848

Democratic and nationalist revolutions that swept across Europe. The monarchy in France was overthrown. In Germany, Austria, Italy, and Hungary the revolutions failed

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12

British Industrialization

1815 CE - 1845 CE A time period when British Isle underwent a major overturn from an agrarian to an industrial economy, including massive oil, mining, and manufacturing factories and plants.

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13

Mass production

The manufacture of many identical products by the division of labor into many small, repetitive tasks. This method was introduced into the manufacture of pottery by Josiah Wedgwood and into the spinning of cotton thread by Richard Arkwright

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14

Division of labor

A manufacturing technique that breaks down a craft into many simple and repetitive tasks that can be performed by unskilled workers. Pioneered in the pottery works of Josiah Wedgwood and in other 18th century factories, it greatly increased the productivity of labor and lowered the cost of manufactured goods

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15

Richard Arkwright

English inventor and entrepreneur who became the wealthiest and most successful textile manufacturer of the early Industrial Revolution. He invented the water frame, a machine that, with minimal human supervision, could spin many strong cotton threads at once.

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16

James Watt

18th century Scot who invented the condenser and other improvements that made the steam engine a practical source of power for industry and transportation. The watt, an electrical measurement, is named after him.

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17

Laissez Faire

The idea that government should refrain from interfering in economic affairs. The classic exposition of laissez-faire principles is Adam Smith's "Wealth of Nations"(1776).

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18

Mercantilism

European government policies of the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries designed to promote overseas trade between a country and its colonies and accumulate precious metals by requiring colonies to trade only with their motherland country. The British system was defined by the Navigation Acts, the French system by laws known as the Exclusif.

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19

Simon Bolivar

(1783-1830) The most important military leader in the struggle for independence in South America. Born in Venezuela, he led military forces there and in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.

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20

Junta

a military group ruling a country after seizing power

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21

Confederation of 1867 - Canada

Negotiated union of the formerly separate colonial governments of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. This new Dominion of Canada with a central government in Ottawa is seen as the beginning of the Canadian nation.

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22

Abolition of Slavery - Western Hem

Most abolition did not occur until after 1850 in the regions that heavily relied on plantation products, such as the United States, Brazil, and Cuba. Slavery was abolished in the U.S. in 1865 following the passing of the 13th Amendment. The end of the slave trade in Brazil, though technically ended in 1830, did not end until British intervention in the 1850s, and the abolition of slavery entirely did not occur until 1888 after the war with Paraguay opened political eyes to the injustice of slavery. British colonies in the Caribbean ended slavery in 1838, French colonies followed a decade later, and the Dutch followed in 1863. Spain did not abolish slavery in Puerto Rico and Cuba until 1886.

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23

Underdevelopment (Economy)

The condition experienced by economies that depend on colonial forms of production such as the export of raw materials and plantation crops with low wages and low investment in education

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24

Janissary

Infantry, originally of slave origin, armed with firearms and constituting the elite of the Ottoman army from the 15th century until the corps was abolished in 1826. Became a significant political force in Istanbul in the eighteenth century. Resentment against their leadership led to revolts in places such as Serbia.

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25

Ottoman Reform - Sultan Selim III

Introduced reforms to create European style military units in the Ottoman Empire, but these reforms failed because of opposition from the Janissaries because of their desire to preserve their economic privileges.

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26

Muhammad Ali - Egypt 1800s

Leader of Egyptian modernization in the early 9th century. He ruled Egypt as an ottoman governor but had imperial ambitions. His descendants ruled Egypt until overthrown in 1952. He adopted many French practices and militarily transformed Egypt by introducing special training schools with European skills and sciences and building factories to outfit his army. He fostered the first newspaper in the Islamic world.

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27

Tanzimat

Restructuring reforms by the 19th century Ottoman rulers, intended to move civil law away from the control of religious elites and make the military and the bureaucracy more efficient. Introduced by Mahmud's successor in 1839 and fostered equality in the justice system and military.

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28

Crimean War

1853-1856 Conflict between the Russian and Ottoman Empires fought primarily in the Crimean Peninsula. To prevent Russian expansion, Britain and France sent troops to support the Ottomans. Resulted in the further discrediting of the tsars--already beset with demands for reform to serfdom, education, and the military-- and represented the first effective mobilization of public support for a war. The Ottoman government became heavily dependent on foreign loans due to the war, and even granted extraterritoriality to Europeans living in commercial centers: the right to be subject to their own laws and exempt from Ottoman jurisdiction.

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29

Tsar Alexander I

(r. 1801-1825) Engaged Russia in reforms similar to those in Egypt and the Ottoman Empire, and they were received more positively due to his previous contact with the West. However, the suspicion of modern ideas under his successor and the slow implementation in practice hindered the reforms' effectiveness.

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30

Pan-Slavism

A militant political doctrine in the latter half of the 19th century advocating unity of all Slavic peoples, including those living under Austrian and Ottoman rule.

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31

Decembrist Revolt

1825 After the death of Alexander I, the struggle for succession prompted reform minded army officers to provoke an uprising. This uprising failed, and not only were participants punished severely, but the successor to the throne, Nicholas I, paid little heed to calls for reform over the next thirty years as a result.

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32

Opium War

1839-1842 After banning the opium trade, China received British backlash in the form of naval and marine intervention in late 1839. When the negotiations between the Chinese and British came to a stalemate, the war broke out. The obsolete Bannermen soldiers and the Qing lack of navy led to British victory when the invaders approached Nanjing, the former Ming capital.

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33

Treaty of Nanking (Nanjing)

1842 This treaty dismantled the Canton system that the Chinese used to control foreign trade. More treaty ports were opened and Hong Kong became a British colonies. British residents in China gained extraterritorial rights and another treaty the following year granted Britain the most favored nation status, which extended all privileges given to other nations to Britain as well. This prevented the colonization of China.

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34

Most Favored Nation Status

Any privileges that China granted to another country would be automatically extended to Britain as well.

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35

Empress Cixi

Also known as "Empress Dowager", she was reviled by later observers, Chinese and otherwise, as being corrupt and monstrously arrogant. But in the 1860's and 1870's, she gained popular support by supporting the provincial governors.

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36

White Lotus Rebellion

A rebellion partly inspired by a messianic ideology of the restoration of the Ming dynasty and the coming of the Buddha that raged across central China from 1794-1804. It initiated a series of conflicts that plagued the 1800s.

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37

Taiping Rebellion

A civil war caused by social unhappiness and foreign intrusion. Originating in Guangxi, the influences that incited the rebellion included agricultural instability, arduous working opportunities, ethnic divisions which generated economic distress, and the tension between the Hakkas (who performed the lowliest trades) and the majority. Hong Xiuquan, a Hakka, saw himself as the younger brother of Jesus and the chosen one to drive the Manchus (aka the Qing) out of China. Capturing Nanjing in 1853, the movement grew to include not only Hakkas but also Chinese who were opposed to Manchu rule. British and French intervention first occurred with the Arrow War (1856-1860) against the Qing and then with their joining against the Taiping Rebellion.

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38

British Raj

The rule over much of South Asia between 1765 and 1947 by the EIC and then by a British government. It's goal was to remake India on a British model through administrative and social reform, economic development, and the introduction of new technology.

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39

Afrikaners

Descendants of Dutch and French settlers who occupied farms and ranches in South Africa. Their expansion was prohibited in order to avoid wars with indigenous Africans, which alienated Afrikaners. Between 1836 and 1939 they embarked on the "Great Trek" that repopulated the veld to the north that had been laid bare by the Zulu wars. They were still a tiny minority, however.

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40

Clipper Ships

post 1850. Large, fast, streamlined sailing vessels, often American built of teak or other tropical hardwoods from new British colonies in South and Southeast Asia, rigged with vast canvas sails hung from tall masts. The increase in size and speed lowered shipping costs and stimulated maritime trade. Increased the tonnage of merchant shipping in Britain by a factor of 4 between 1778 and 1860.

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41

Nation-state

A type of state that conjoins the political entity of a state to the cultural entity of a nation, from which it aims to derive its political legitimacy to rule and potentially its status as a sovereign state if one accepts the declarative theory of statehood as opposed to the constitutive theory. A state is specifically a political and geopolitical entity, whilst a nation is a cultural and ethnic one. The term "nation state" implies that the two coincide, in that a state has chosen to adopt and endorse a specific cultural group as associated with it.

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42

Liberalism

A political ideology that emphasizes the civil rights of citizens, representative government, and the protection of private property. This ideology, derived from the Enlightenment, was especially popular among the property owning middle classes of Europe and North America. Associated with nationalism under the assertion of the sovereignty of the people.

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43

Sokoto Caliphate

1809-1906 A large Muslim state founded in 1809 in what is now northern Nigeria. Generated out of a movement against the unbelievers of Hausa states by means of a jihad. This state became a center of Islamic learning and reform, with Quranic training schools and a great library at Sokoto. Religious freedom was allowed at a price, but they also suppressed many aspects of traditional religions. Those who resisted the Muslim jihadist expansion were killed, enslaved, or forced to convert. Sokoto's leaders sold many captives into the Trans-Saharan slave trade, and they held a larger number of slaves in 1865 than any slave holding state in the Americas.

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44

Legitimate Trade

Exports from Africa in the nineteenth century that did not include the newly outlawed slave trade. They revived old exports or developed new ones, the most successful of which was palm oil from West Africa. Palm oil was used by British manufacturers for soap, candles, and lubricants.

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45

Recaptives

Africans rescued by Britain's Royal Navy from the illegal slave trade of the nineteenth century and restored to free status. Christian missionaries helped settle them in and around Freetown, the capital in Sierra Leone, and made many converts among the recaptured men and women.

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46

Sepoys

A soldier in South Asia, especially in the service of the British. They were enlisted to protect fortified British warehouses from attack. These private armies came to hold the balance of power and revolted in 1857 along with some peasants and elites against certain practices enacted by the British.

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47

Rammohun Roy

(1772-1833) Promoted reduction of Indian social and ethnic divisions and Pan-Indian nationalism. He was a successful administrator in the EIC and he founded the Brahmo Samaj in 1828, which attempted to reconcile the values of the West with the religious traditions of India.

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48

Indian National Congress 1885

1885 A convention of educated people who were angered with the obstacles that British rules and and prejudices put in the way of their advancement. They sought a larger role for Indians in the civil service, and called for reductions in military expenditures to alleviate the poverty of the Indian masses.

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49

Victorian Age separate spheres

Nineteenth century idea in Western societies that men and women, especially of the middle class, should have clearly differentiated roles in society: women as wives, mothers and homemakers; men as breadwinners and participants in business and politics.

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50

Indentured servants/bonded labor

Becoming a mainstay of sugar plantations, these laborers were bound to work for a specific period in return for a free passage to their overseas destination. They were paid a small salary and were provided with housing, clothing, and medical care. Indian indentured servants also received the right to a free passage home if they worked a second five year contract. 40 women for every 100 men were recruited to promote family life.

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51

Submarine telegraphy cables

Insulated copper cables laid along the bottom of a sea or ocean for telegraphic communication. The first short cable was laid across the English Channel in 1851; the first successful transatlantic cable was laid in 1866.

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52

Laissez faire capitalism

The idea that government should not be involved in economic affairs. The most famous advocate is Adam Smith, the author of The Wealth of Nations (1776).

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53

Socialism/Marxism

A political ideology that originated in Europe in the 1830s. Socialists advocated government protection of workers from exploitation by property owners and government ownership of industries. This ideology led to the founding of socialist or labor parties throughout Europe in the second half of the nineteenth century. Supported by radical thinkers who questioned the sanctity of private property and argued in support of industrial workers against their employers (thus the formation of labor unions).

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54

Labor unions

An organization of workers in a particular industry or trade, created to defend the interests of members through strikes or negotiations with employers. (esp in the 19th century)

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55

Suffrage

The product of electoral politics' persuasion of workers to become part of the existing political system. A gradual extension of the right to vote during the nineteenth century in Europe and North America turned into universal male suffrage as law in the 1870s and 80s for U.S., France, Germany, and Britain, and the rest of Europe followed shortly after. Due to this enfranchisement of workers, the door was opened to socialist politicians to gain seat in the parliaments of their nations.

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56

Natural rights

life, liberty and property, as defined by John Locke in 1690

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57

Effective occupation

Every country with colonial ambitions had to send troops into Africa and participate in the division of the spoils, as laid out in the Berlin Conference of 1884-85

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58

Colonial concession

A territory within a country that is administered by an entity other than the state which holds sovereignty over it.This is usually a colonizing power, or at least mandated by one, as in the case of colonial chartered companies.

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59

Extraterritoriality

When living in another country, it is the right to be subject to the laws of your country of origin rather than the laws of your country of occupation.

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60

Monopoly

A market in which there are many buyers but only one seller.

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61

Humanitarian Values

Values that promote better conditions for people throughout the world.

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62

Business Cycle

Fluctuations in economic activity, such as employment and production

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63

Social Darwinism

The exaltation of the powerful over the weak, men over women, rich over poor, Europeans over other races, and humans over nature. These ideas gave a scientific-sounding justification for the power of the privileged.

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64

Free-trade Imperialism

Economic dominance of a weaker country by a more powerful one, while maintaining the legal independence of the weaker state. In the late nineteenth century, free-trade imperialism characterized the relations between the Latin American republics, on the one hand, and Great Britain and the United States, on the other.

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65

Thomas Edison

An American inventor who is best known for the inventions of the electric light bulb, phonograph, and motion pictures.

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66

Giuseppe Garibaldi

Italian nationalist and revolutionary who conquered Sicily and Naples and added them to a unified Italy in 1860

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67

Count Camillo Benso di Cavour

Prime minister of Piedmont-Sardinia who unified north and central Italy

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68

Otto von Bismarck

Chancellor (prime minister) of Prussia from 1862 until 1871, when he became chancellor of Germany. A conservative nationalist, he led Prussia to victory against Austria (1866) and France (1870) and was responsible for the creation of the German Empire in 1871

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69

Yamagato Aritomo

One of the leaders of the Meiji Restoration, a Meiji oligarch. He believed that Japan had to define a sphere of influence that included Korea, Manchuria, and part of China. To protect this sphere of influence, he insisted, Japan must sustain a vigorous program of military industrialization and the building of battleships.

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70

Wilhelm II of Germany

An insecure and arrogant man who tried to gain respect by making belligerent speeches. Within two years he had dismissed chancellor Bismarck and surrounded himself with yes men. He demanded a colonial empire, and felt that Germany deserved a "place in the sun" due to their large industrial economy and mighty army.

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71

Emancipation of Russian Serfs, 1861

Completed by Tsar Alexander II partly out of a genuine desire to strengthen the bonds between the monarchy and the Russian people and partly to promote industrialization by enlarging the labor pool. It, however, only turned serfs into farm workers with few skills. Most Russians had little education, few legal rights, and no say in government.

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72

Franco Prussian War, 1871

A border clash between the growing German army and the French over disputed territories Alsace and Lorraine.

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73

Meiji Restoration

The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism.

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74

Boxer Rebellion, 1900

An uprising in China directed against foreign influence. It was suppressed by an international force of some eighteen thousand soldiers, including several thousand Americans. This paved the way for the revolution of 1911, which led to the establishment of the Republic of China in 1912.

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75

Colonialism

Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.

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76

Battle of Omdurman 1898

Battle in which Britain defeated Sudan. Britain's superior weaponry was key in their victory and led to many more Sudanese casualties than British casualties.

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77

Suez Canal

Ship canal dug across the isthmus of Suez in Egypt, designed by Ferdinand de Lesseps. It opened to shipping in 1869 and shortened the sea voyage between Europe and Asia. Its strategic importance led to the British conquest of Egypt in 1882.

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78

Scramble for Africa, 1878

1885- Berlin Conference - to monitor Europen countries' land acquisitions in Africa to avoid disputes. Wanted southern and eastern coasts for stopover ports on the way to India. Britain gained Nigeria, Kenya, Uganda, Egypt and the Sudan. 1900 - 1/5 of worlds land and 1/4 of population under British Rule. Boost trade, but may be expensive. Ruins relationships with other countries - May lead to war (expensive, so turn population against Empire).

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79

King Leopold II

King of Belgium (r. 1865-1909). He was active in encouraging the exploration of Central Africa and became the infamous ruler of the Congo Free State (to 1908).

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80

Berlin Conference 1884 & 1885

Regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period, and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power.

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81

Cecil Rhodes

Born in 1853, played a major political and economic role in colonial South Africa. He was a financier, statesman, and empire builder with a philosophy of mystical imperialism.

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82

Sino-Japanese War

(1894-1895) Japan's imperialistic war against China to gain control of natural resources and markets for their goods. It ended with the Treaty of Portsmouth which granted Japan Chinese port city trading rights, control of Manchuria, the annexation of the island of Sakhalin, and Korea became its protectorate.

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83

US annexation of Hawaii 1898

U.S. wanted Hawaii for business so Hawaiian sugar could be sold in the U.S. duty free, Queen Liliuokalani opposed so Sanford B. Dole overthrew her. William McKinley convinced Congress to annex Hawaii in 1898. Removed Queen Liliuokalani from power.

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84

Emilio Aguinaldo

Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901.

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85

Free-trade imperialism

Economic dominance of a weaker country by a more powerful one, while maintaining the legal independence of the weaker state. In the late nineteenth century, free-trade imperialism characterized the relations between the Latin American republics, on the one hand, and Great Britain and the United States, on the other.

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86

Panama Canal

(Teddy Roosevelt) , The United States built the Panama Canal to have a quicker passage to the Pacific from the Atlantic and vice versa. It cost $400,000,000 to build. Columbians would not let Americans build the canal, but then with the assistance of the United States a Panamanian Revolution occurred. The new ruling people allowed the United States to build the canal.

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87

Alliance System, WWI

An unclear system where Nations of Europe promised military support to each other, but this system proved flawed in that when one country was attacked, all countries had to go to war.

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88

Trench Warfare

A form of warfare in which opposing armies fight each other from trenches dug in the battlefield.

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89

Balfour Declaration, 1917

Proclamation of Great Britain by Arthur Balfour, supported the establishment of a homeland for Jews in Palestine while protecting the rights of non-Jews residing in Palestine.

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90

Bolsheviks

A group of revolutionary Russian Marxists who took control of Russia's government in November 1917

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91

Vladimir Lenin

Founder of the Russian Communist Party, this man led the November Revolution in 1917 which established a revolutionary soviet government based on a union of workers, peasants, and soldiers.

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92

Fourteen Points

The war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations.

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93

Self-Determination, post war

1972-2005

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94

Treaty of Versailles

(WW1) 1918, Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. Germany had to repair war damages (33 billion) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI. Germany could not manufacture any weapons.

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95

League of Nations

A world organization established in 1920 to promote international cooperation and peace. It was first proposed in 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson, although the United States never joined the League. Essentially powerless, it was officially dissolved in 1946.

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96

Sun Yat-sen

Chinese nationalist revolutionary, founder and leader of the Guomindang until his death. He attempted to create a liberal democratic political movement in China but was thwarted by military leaders.

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97

Zaibatsu

Large conglomerate corporations through which key elite families exerted a great deal of political and economic power in Imperial Japan. By WWII, four of them controlled most of the economy of Japan.

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98

Guomindang

Nationalist political party founded on democratic principles by Sun Yat-sen in 1912. After 1925, the party was headed by Chiang Kai-shek, who turned it into an increasingly authoritarian movement.

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99

Mandate System

Allocation of former German colonies and Ottoman possessions to the victorious powers after World War I, to be administered under League of Nations supervision.

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100

Mustafa Kemal Ataturk

The military and political leader who brought about the end of the Ottoman Empire and the beginning of modern Turkey. He was promoted to general at the age of 35 and given command of the army near the Black Sea port of Samsun. He defied the Sultan's orders to quash opposition and instead built an army of his own to fight for independence from European control. The Sultan ordered his arrest, but 1919- 1923 he successfully fought off foreign armies as well as opposition forces from Turkey. On 23 October 1923 the national parliament declared the existence of the Republic of Turkey with Kemal as president. His fifteen years in office were turbulent -- he ruled as a dictator as he attempted political and social reforms -- "father of the Turks."

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