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what is morality?

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1

what is morality?

the set of standards by which we guide our actions to be good or evil

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2

what does happiness have to do with human life and morality?

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3

what are the four helps that we have in living a christian life (imitating christ)?

  1. a christian community

  2. prayer

  3. grace from the sacraments

  4. following the commandments

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4

definition of precepts of the church

positive laws by church authorities to guarantee the faithful the minimum prayer and moral effort for the sake of their growth in their love for God and neighbor

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5

what is the old law?

aka moral law, the 10 commandments and is the basis of morality -fatherly instruction of god setting forth the way to happiness

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6

what is the new law?

the gospel of jesus christ (a law of love)

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7

what are some precepts of the church?

-mass every sunday and holy day of obligation -confession at least once per year -eucharist at least during the easter season -observe fasting days -provide for needs of the church (according to your ability)

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8

what are the 5 main sources of morality?

  1. sacred scripture

  2. sacred tradition

  3. the magisterium

  4. natural law

  5. natural sciences

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9

what is sacred scripture?

-the word of god, divine truth, inspired by god and written by human authors (dual authorship) -includes the old law (10 commands) and new law (law of love)

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10

how does sacred scripture lead us to happiness and choosing right/wrong?

-jesus' actions, teaching, and preaching show us how to choose right from wrong and how to have joy in this life and the next (beatitudes + "WWJD?")

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11

what is sacred tradition?

-the living transmission of the gospel of jesus -includes early christians' writings and practices (acts of the apostles through 500 ad) ex: how people baptized, celebrated mass, reconciliation, pray, etc. at that time

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12

how does sacred tradition lead us to happiness and knowing right from wrong?

-knowing how early christians lived the faith and interpreted scripture and chose right from wrong will help us to know how to do the same in our lives

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13

what is the magisterium?

-the universal teaching authority/office of the church given by the founder (jesus). holy spirit guarantees teachings of faith and morals are infallible when the pope teaches "from the chair" ("ex cathedra") of St. Peter -bishops in union with the pope are included in the magisterium

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14

how does the magisterium lead us to happiness and know how to choose right from wrong?

-it guides us in applying sacred scripture and tradition to current moral issues so that we can more clearly know how to choose the good

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15

what is natural law?

-it helps us to understand the truth using reason alone -it is the knowledge of basic right and wrong (justice/injustice) that comes from the very wisdom of god and is written on the human heart

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16

how does natural law lead us to happiness and choosing right from wrong?

-by knowing basic rules of right and wrong, justice and injustice, one knows (in a basic sense) how to be happy and allow others to be happy -however, we still also need divine revelation to have the full sense of morality!

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17

what are the natural sciences?

-they are facts learned through observing nature; facts about what is healthy/good for our bodily existence -ex: medical info, scientific research

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18

how do the natural sciences lead us to happiness and choosing right from wrong?

-it uses reason and observation to help identify the good/healthy and avoid the bad/unhealthy -ex: doctors, scientists, philosophers -however, we still also need divine revelation to have the full sense of morality!

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19

does morality restrict human freedom or enhance it? (freedom for excellence)

-it makes the good possible first -gives us the power to act freely in excellence and virtue so inclinations are rooted in truth and goodness -the more moral you are, the less rules you need to follow (you have control over the rules bc of your morality!)

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20

freedom for excellence vs freedom from constraints

  1. freedom for excellence: "good" limits that help us to do good and avoid evil, frees our nature and helps us choose. ex: guardrails on a cliff against the road made to protect the driver from losing control and falling off 2)freedom from constraints: limits our nature, limiting us from choosing good. ex. birdcage with birds in it => birds released from cage

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21

chastity

-a virtue that frees us from the selfish attitude of using another. -makes us capable of love (can't love without it!) -includes purity of mind and body -helps us to order sexual desire to the true good of the other (our desire for intimacy)

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22

repression

the unhealthy attempt to ignore/bury sexual desires rather than embracing them and allowing god to reorder what is disordered in them for the good of oneself and others

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23

how are chastity and abstinence related? are they the same?

chastity is a virtue, whereas abstinence is not. abstinence gives up pleasure for a good reason (giving up meat for lent), but chastity frees us from the selfish attitude of another, while still ordering and using our desire to love.

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24

how are eros and agape related?

both are forms of love??

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25

eros

greek word for desire or passion

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26

what are two extremes of eros?

lust and repression

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27

agape

god's faithful love ; total

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28

how are married couples also called to practice the virtue of chastity?

-sexual desire is rechanneled when necessary for the good of the spouse and love is shown in other ways: -acts of service -quality time -listening to one another -taking care of one another

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29

how can one express sexual desires in a healthy and virtuous way if one is single?

-sexual desire is rechanneled to love self and others in a wat that serves the true good of self and others. -ex: using the desire to love in a spiritual way (praying, fasting), physical way (serving, acts of kindness, thoughtful acts) -religious life (vows of chastity)

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30

can one love another person even if they don't "feel like it?"

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31

personalistic norm

a term coined by St. John Paul II that describes the attitude we should have towards all living beings, which is love.

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32

what are other ways in which a person may be used, besides sexually? how does using another person go against the personalistic norm?

using another person for his or her homework or lunch money. -it goes against the personalistic norm because we should have a positive attitude towards everyone, and not use them. it conflicts with the norm because one is using someone else for their own benefit, and is not exhibiting a genuine and good attitude towards everyone

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33

transubstantiation

in a real, true, and substantial manner, the entire substance of the bread and wine change into the body and blood of christ with his soul and divinity while leaving the accidents (qualities) intact

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34

form of the eucharist

the priest asks the holy spirit to come down. he recalls ("makes present") the last supper as he (and jesus acting through the priest) says, "this is my body, and this is my blood."

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35

matter of the eucharist

the host and wine are the body + blood, soul + divinity of jesus

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36

minister of the eucharist

the priest (or bishop (also a priest))

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37

effects of the eucharist

-sanctifying grace continues to burn brightly in us -we are filled with the love of christ -forgives our venial sins-remission of sin -strengthens us to avoid grave(mortal) sins, concupiscence -reinforces unity in the church as the mystical body of christ

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38

the paschal mystery refers to... a. jesus' passion, death, resurrection, ascension b. jesus' suffering on the cross c. jesus' passion, death, resurrection d. none of the above

a. a. jesus' passion, death, resurrection, ascension

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39

another name for beatitude is... a. meek b. grace c. happiness d. anamnesis

c. happiness

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40

what is the greek word for memory or to make present again? a. transubstantiation b. eucharist c. anamnesis d. grace

c. anamnesis

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41

lust disregards the dignity of another and is a form of: a. chastity b. utilitarianism c. repression d. all of the above

b. utilitarianism

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42

what is the greek word for the unconditional love that god shares with us? a. eros b. storge c. philia d. agape

d. agape

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43

what is the principle that recognizes that the only proper and adequate attitude toward a human person is love? a. chastity b. personalistic norm c. abstinence d. agape

b. personalistic norm

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44

what virtue helps us rightly order our call to love? a. abstinence b. utilitarianism c. repression d. chastity

d. chastity

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45

what is the inherent value we all possess from god? a. dignity b. original solitude c. naked without shame d. theology

a. dignity

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46

what is an outward sign of an invisible reality of grace? a. theology b. sacrament c. none of the above d. all of the above

b. sacrament

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47

when this is numbed/suppressed, one may attempt to use others or allow oneself to be used a. pride b. shame c. lust d. original solitude

b. shame

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48

what is naked without shame, the state of Adam and Eve before the fall? a. a gift only Adam and Eve had b. is possibly only in heaven c. can be experienced within a true, loving marriage d. none of the above

c. can be experienced within a true, loving marriage

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49

theology is the study of all things that exist a. true b. false

b. false

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50

where in scripture do we learn that are bodies are very good? a. exodus b. genesis c. revelation d. acts

b. genesis

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51

living a moral life... a. limits us and is constraint to our freedom b. does not affect our freedom in any way c. helps us be more free (freedom for excellence) d. is not for everyone

c. helps us be more free (freedom for excellence)

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52

all of the following are part of the 5 main sources of morality except... a. sacred scripture b. magisterium c. personal opinion d. natural sciencees

c. personal opinion

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53

transubstantiation means that the accidents (appearance) of bread and wine change, while the substance remains the same a. true b. false

b. false

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54

to love is to will the good of another a. true b. false

a. true

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55

the minister for confirmation is... a. anyone with the intent of confirming b. priest c. bishop or priest appointed by the bishop d. a christian

c. bishop or priest appointed by the bishop

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56

which old testament event prefigured our salvation from the slavery of sin through baptism a. crossing of the jordan river b. creation (spirit hovering over the water) c. crossing of the red sea d. noah and his family saved from the flood

c. crossing of the red sea

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57

what is the main matter or material for baptism? a. chrism oil b. white garment c. water d. candle

c. water

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58

what is the word for when someone dies for their faith before they're baptized? a. baptism by desire b. baptized sacramentally c. baptism by blood d. not really baptized

c. baptism by blood

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59

baptism in greek means a. to crucify b. to anoint c. to immerse/dip d. new life

c. to immerse/dip

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60

who is able to receive god's grace? a. non christians b. christians c. catholics d. all of the above

d. all of the above

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61

what is the word for the standard by which we judge our acts to be good or evil is? a. theology of the body b. freedom c. morality d. truth

c. morality

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62

naked without shame

-Within true, loving marriage: husband and wife understand each other's value and can be naked without shame. -The sacrament of marriage gives special graces to spouses. -No fear of being used by the other, no selfishness. -Echo of the garden of Eden.

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63

spousal meaning of the body

-the couple's bodies show that they are made to be a gift to each other. -they see their own bodies as a gift to be given and the other's body as a gift to be treasured.

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64

theology

the study of God or "faith-seeking understanding", seeking to understand God's word.

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65

original innocence

adam and eve's minds, hearts, and bodies were perfectly innocent-there was no fear of lust of exploitation

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66

original unity

the initial experience of perfect unity between man and woman as they lived in perfect communion with each other and gave themselves to each other through the mutual gift of their bodies.

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67

original solitude

adam (and by the extension of all humanity) realized that he was a person and different from all other animals and that he was alone.

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68

theology of the body

the study of God as revealed through our bodies

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69

communion of persons

love is never in isolation. There must be a lover, a beloved, and a love between the two.

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70

sacramentality of the body

the ability of the body to make God's invisible love visible and to reveal the person themselves

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71

shame

the tendency to conceal one's sexual value in order to help others see their personal value. It reminds us of our dignity that must be protected

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72

lust

sexual desire apart from God's love- a selfish desire that seeks one's own pleasure at the expense of another. It is "disordered desire for or inordinate enjoyment of sexual pleasure" (CCC 2351).

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73

where do we learn our bodies are "very good"?

in the bible, creation story in genesis

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74

how can understanding the "sacramentality of the body" help one to love (rather than use) oneself and others?

-it allows us to see one another as God sees us- as complete beings with bodies that were made to love one another, and not to be objects for use. -it allows our desires to remain pure, and love and not objectify others.

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75

who experienced "original solitude" first and how does it relate to the vocation of every human person?

-adam experienced original solitude first. -it relates our vocation it helps us realize that we were made first for a relationship with God and that relationship was the foundation for all future relationships.

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76

what is the protoevangelium? why is it important for mankind after the fall?

-the protoevangelium is the "first gospel", or the first mention of good news right after the fall. -it is important for mankind after the fall because it hints the coming of a savior, ultimately jesus christ. he will die for our sins, granting our redemption and salvation through his crucifixion.

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77

when did shame become part of the human experience, and what is its twofold purpose?

after the fall.

  1. reminds us of our dignity that must be protected

  2. reminds us that our dignity might not be protected by others.

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78

what are two extremes in which people tend to deal with shame today?

  1. shamelessness -no remorse for desire to be used or to use another -lost/repressed their healthy shame, leading to a numbed conscience

  2. prudishness -fear of the body -fear of sexual desire -ruled by shame

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79

what is the difference between "shameless" and "naked without shame"?

-a person who is shameless has no remorse for desire to be used or to use another. don't realize the goodness and dignity of their body. -however, a person who is naked without shame has no shame of their body, no selfishness, and understands each other's value and their own

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80

indelible

not able to be removed

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81

first old testament prefiguration of baptism: genesis (creation)

-in the beginning, the spirit "hovered over the waters" -connection to baptism: a. the holy spirit "hovers over the water" and over a person (comes to dwell in them) when the water covers the forehead in baptism b. we become a new creation, like what happened in the beginning

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82

second old testament prefiguration of baptism: genesis (flood)

-noah and his family are saved from death and sin through the flood waters -connection to baptism: a. saves us from original and personal sin b. saves us from eternal death (we can go to heaven!)

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83

third old testament prefiguration of baptism: crossing of the red sea

-moses and the israelites crossed the red sea and were freed from slavery to the egyptians -connection to baptism: a. one becomes freed from sin (original + personal), and evil through the waters of baptism -connection to the paschal mystery: the "red sea" of jesus' blood shed for us

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84

fourth old testament prefiguration of baptism: crossing of the jordan

-israelites crossed the jordan river (miraculously) to enter the promised land -connection to baptism: a. the true promised land of heaven is OPENED to us when our personal sin and original sin are washed away(through baptism) jesus would be baptized in the jordan river hundreds of years later!!

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85

baptism effect #1: purification from sin

baptism involves a real death to sin and a real birth to new life in christ

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86

baptism effect #2: new life (rebirth) in the holy spirit

-we become children of god, and have a new relationship with each member in the trinity a. we live in christ and are members of his body (the church) in a real, spiritual, yet mystical way b. we are in a family, united to christains in heaven (communion of saints) and on earth

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87

baptism effect #3: indwelling of the trinity

-in the early church, baptism was also called "illumination/enlightenment" a. light => faith, heaven, bright, cleanliness, goodness, truth b. darkness => sin, unbelief, ignorance

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88

baptism effect #4: we receive an indelible mark on the soul!

different kinds given in 3 sacraments: Baptism, Confirmation, Holy Orders -the soul is "Tattooed" or marked as belonging to God, but this mark is dynamic, not static -it enables us to "house" God, to participate in His Divine Life

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89

form of baptism

The words the priest, etc. says while baptizing the person: "(Name), I baptize you in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit."

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90

matter of baptism

holy water

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91

minister of baptism

bishop, priest, or deacon or anyone (with good intentions) in an emergency

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92

is baptism necessary for salvation?

yes and no; god himself is not bound by the sacraments. while someone should seek god's grace in the way and in the manner that christ instructed, god can choose any means to convey his grace in accordance with his divine wisdom. exceptions: -baptism of blood -baptism of desire

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93

baptism of desire

devoted catechumens who die before receiving the Sacrament of Baptism receive forgiveness for their sins and experience God's saving mercy.

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94

baptism by blood

The martyrdom of an unbaptized person who thereby receives the graces of Baptism for having died or been killed for the Faith.

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95

what does baptism in greek mean?

to immerse, dip

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96

why is water an effective sign for Baptism?

-water is one of the most available resources on earth. -it provides life to all living things, and it cleanses and washes away blemishes and dirt. -the waters of baptism wash away our original and personal sin and it gives us grace. -it makes sense that water is a sign because it cleanses and heals us.

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97

is it possible for non-Christians to receive eternal salvation?

-the Church allows for instances in which God may generously give saving grace to those who, for no fault of their own, are not Christian. -the Catechism states that because all people are tied to the same destiny, which is salvation, those who do not know Christ but seek the truth can be saved.

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98

how can we remove the damage of original sin?

we can fully repair the damage of original sin in our lives through prayer, frequent reception, mortification, and choosing actions that reflect our Christian lives.

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99

What happens to babies who die without being baptized?

God desires for all of us to be saved, so his mercy provides babies who have not been baptized other means of salvation.

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100

Why can baptism be received only once?

-it is a birth of new life: we are born only once. -baptism is also an imprinting of an indelible sign which can only be received once in three sacraments: Baptism, Confirmation, Holy Orders. -this sacrament also washes away all Original Sin that we are born with. -during Baptism, we also become new members of the Church, and that can only be performed once.

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