Virology Final Exam

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Where was monkeypox first identified?

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1

Where was monkeypox first identified?

Denmark

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2

Which are the two clades of MPX?

West and Central Africa

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3

Why are these clades the most important, what do they tell us about the origins?

the 1st observation, and the severity in different regions

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4

If an individual walked into your clinic w/ symptoms suspected to be human MPX, what would you look for?

Rash and fever, pustules, ask about travel history

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5

How does the smallpox vaccine cross-protect against monkey pox?

They share antigen features

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6

Briefly discuss the epidemiology of MPX

Many reservoir host but humans and monkeys are primary host

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7

Describe the transmission cycle of monkey pox

Direct/ Indirect contact w/ animal, aerosol transmission, human-human

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8

How would you expect the progression of MPX to take place in an infected individual?

Fever, rash, headache, swollen lymph nodes

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9

How did the first monkeypox outbreak happen in the US?

From Ghana 2003

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10

Do you think that the cessation of smallpox vaccination is driving the monkey pox outbreaks globally?

Yes because cross protection antibodies protect antigen

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11

How would you diagnose monkeypox?

Test IgM/IgG, culture, electron Microscopy test, and pcr test

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12

What is the treatment for moneypox?

No treatment, supportive care

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13

As an epidemiologist, what are some ways you could prevent community transmission

Give health care workers smallpox vax.

Don’t name virus after geographic region

Don’t discriminate

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14

True or False? Diagnosis of poxvirus infections is made based on the appearance of the lesions concentrated on the palms and soles.

True

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15

How long is the prodomal period for smallpox?

2-4 days

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16

True or False? The extracellular virion (EV) form of the vaccinia virus contains one membrane wrapped around a large linear dsDNA genome.

True

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17

Which property of viral RNA polymerases contributes to the rapid evolution of RNA viruses?

Lack of proofreading ability

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18

How was monkeypox first introduced into the United States

Import of infected Gambian rats to a pet store in Texas

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19

Which virus is a serious threat to fresh fish in the Great Lakes region of the United States?

Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus

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20

The HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C epidemics localized in central China in the late 1980s and early 1990s were caused primarily by

contaminated blood supplies

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21

True or False? DNA viruses possess higher mutation rates than RNA viruses.

False

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22

True or False? The spread of the Zika virus has been aided by air travel and global trade.

True

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23

True or False? The sudden loss of honeybees in the United States was concluded to be caused by invertebrate

True

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24

True or False? The use of immunosuppressants makes one more susceptible to adenovirus infection.

True

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25

Which of the following viruses has not been shown to cause cancer in humans?

Simian virus 40

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26

Temin and Baltimore shared the 1975 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for:

discovering reverse transcriptase

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27

What disease does HTLV primarily cause?

Adult T cell leukemia

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28

What is mainly responsible for the reduction in the incidence of HBV cancers worldwide?

Availability of an HBV vaccine

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29

What explains the high incidence of scrotal and testicular cancer among 18th-century chimney sweeps?

Exposure to carcinogens

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30

True or False? About 20% of human cancers are associated with viruses.

True

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31

True or False? Progressive telomere shortening is a normal part of aging in humans.

True

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32

True or False? An optimized oncolytic virus should be capable of being administered intravenously.

True

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33

Match the scientists with their respective scientific discovery concerning cancer.

a. Demonstrated that filterable agent caused sarcomas in healthy hens

Ans: Rous

b. Demonstrated that oncogenes were cellular genes hijacked by viruses from cells

Ans: Bishop and Varmus

c. Discovered reverse transcriptases

Ans: Baltimore and Temin

d. Developed the Pap smear test for cervical cancer

Ans: Papanicolaou

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34

Who tasted and tested hundreds of plants for their medicinal properties?

Nung

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35

Which of the following is not typically used as a vector for gene therapy?

Polioviruses

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36

What antimicrobial substance did Alexander Fleming discover in tears?

Lysozyme

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37

What complication following gene therapy resulted in the death of Jesse Gelsinger?

Adult respiratory distress syndrome

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38

True or False? Waiting lists for kidney and liver transplants are the longest.

False

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39

True or False? The molecule alpha-1,3-galactose is responsible for hyperacute rejection of pig organs in human recipients.

True

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40

True or False? Monkey organs are suitable for human transplants because they are similar in size to human organs.

False

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41

True or False? Hippocrates believed that there was a rational explanation for all physical ailments.

True

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42

Which of the following is not a known route of prion transmission?

Fomites

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43

30. Which stage of Kuru is defined by severe tremors, incontinence, difficulty swallowing, and deep ulcerations?

Terminal

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44

31. True or False? Kuru was more common in women than in men of the Fore people of Papua New Guinea.

True

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45

32.Match each prion disease with its respective host.

a. Scrapie Ans: Sheep b. Chronic wasting disease Ans: Elk c. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy Ans: Cattle 7. Feline spongiform encephalopathy Ans: Domestic cats

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46

33. Which of the following is not one of the ways plant viruses can be transmitted?

Aerosols

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47

34. What percentage of global food production is lost to plant disease annually?

10%

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48

35. True or False? Plant viruses can be transmitted from parent to offspring.

True

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49

36. True or False? The Dicer enzyme functions to cleave viral dsRNA into short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs).

True

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50

37. What infection did d’Herelle famously treat with bacteriophage therapy at the League of Nations quarantine station in Egypt?

C) Bubonic plaque

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51

38. What population is the focus of the global Phagoburn clinical trial?

B) Serious burn victims

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52

What population is the focus of the global Phagoburn clinical trial?

Serious burn victims

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53

The lytic activity of marine bacteriophages is essential for the recycling of which nutrient into the marine environment?

\n

Carbon

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54

Which of the following is not a potential site of biofilm formation?

\n

Silver-impregnated catheters

\n

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55

. Which phage enzyme creates pores in the inner membrane of the host cell so that lysis can take place?

\n

Holing

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56

A bacteriophage with a mutated repressor gene would be incapable of:

\n

maintaining lysogeny.

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57

What percentage of dairy product fermentation batches is lost to bacteriophage infection?

\n

1–10%

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58

Which process do phages use to deliver their genome into the host cytoplasm?

\n

Penetration

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59

Bacteriophages play a beneficial role in the commercial production of cheese.

\n

False

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60

The only gene expressed during the prophage state encodes the bacteriophage repressor protein.

\n

True

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61

The majority of bacteriophages contain a double-stranded DNA (dsRNA) genome

\n

True

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62

The coronaviruses that have caused the recent epidemic and pandemic outbreaks of diseases, including SARS, MERS, and COVID-19, in human populations belong to

\n

Betacoronavirus (beta-CoV),

\n

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63

SARS-CoV-2 is closely related to which strains of SARA-CoV-2?

\n

Bats

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64

What strandedness are Coronaviruses?

\n

Positive RNA

\n

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65

What receptor does SARS-CoV2 use to infect cells?

\n

ACE2

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66

What is the gold standard diagnostic detection method for SARS-CoV2?

\n

Molecular detection

\n

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67

What is the most effective method for a long-term strategy for prevention and control of COVID-19?

\n

Vaccination

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68

Which are the 2 COVID mRNA vaccine that were deployed in the US?

\n

Pfizer and Moderna

\n

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69

Host cell binding and entry of SARS-CoV2 virus are mediated by the                    protein

\n

spike

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70

The                          of the S protein contains the receptor binding domain that binds to the peptidase domain of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2)

\n

S1 subunit

\n

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71

Once the person is given COVID-19 mRNA vaccine, the mRNA and spike protein last long in the body

\n

False

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72

Which of the following is not an immune evasion protein produced by poxviruses?

\n

Viroantibodies

\n

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73

Which of the following statements concerning smallpox vaccination is not true?

\n

The practice of variolation began in the early 20th century.

\n

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74

Virologists believe that smallpox is responsible for the selection of a mutated gene that confers resistance to what human disease?

\n

HIV

\n

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75

How long is the prodomal period for smallpox?

\n

2–4 days

\n

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76

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the poxvirus genome?

\n

Nonessential genes located in the central part of the genome

\n

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77
  • An individual arrives at the clinic exhibiting a high fever and a vesicular rash on their face, palms, and soles. Which test should be performed to confirm a diagnosis of smallpox?

\n

Electron microscopy

\n

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78

Poxvirus genome replication occurs in the nucleus

\n

False

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79

Smallpox suddenly emerged during the Industrial Revolution.

\n

False

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80

Attenuated poxvirus vectors have been engineered to undergo ____________, such that they express high levels of foreign antigens without forming full infectious particles

\n

abortive replication

\n

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81
  • The smallpox vaccine is administered using a _____________ to create multiple punctures into the deltoid muscle.

\n

bifurcated needle

\n

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82

What approach was taken to stop the spread of Nipah virus?

\n

Culling of livestock

\n

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83

Which human activity has led to increases in Machupo and Lassa hemorrhagic virus infections in humans?

\n

Agricultural practices

\n

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84

The HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C epidemics localized in central China in the late 1980s and early 1990s were caused primarily by:

\n

contaminated blood supplies.

\n

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85

What usually determines the severity of West Nile Virus outbreaks in New York from one year to the next?

\n

Severity of winter

\n

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86

Which poxvirus can be transmitted by sexual contact?

\n

Molluscum contagiosum virus

\n

\n

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87

Monkey pox virus:

\n

Is part of the same family as variola, the virus that causes smallpox.

\n

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88

Which of the following statements is true about monkeypox virus transmission?

\n

Monkeypox can be transmitted by touching items worn by someone with the virus.

\n

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89

Monkeypox vaccine strategies include which of the following statements?

\n

JYNNEOS is an administered live virus vaccine

\n

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90

Previous small pox vaccination provides cross-protection against monkey pox

\n

True

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91

The spread of the Zika virus has been aided by air travel and global trade.

\n

True

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92

Which of the following is not one of the ways plant viruses can be transmitted?

\n

Aerosols

\n

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93

Which of the following is not a feature of plant virus genomes?

\n

Encode their own transcription factors

\n

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94

Which of the following is not characteristic of plant satellite viruses?

\n

They rarely affect the health of the plant.

\n

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95

Which assay cannot be used to diagnose viral diseases in plants?

\n

Plaque assays

\n

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96

Which vascular tissue is used by viruses to cause systemic infections in plants?

\n

Phloem

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97

\n What population is the focus of the global Phagoburn clinical trial?

Serious Burn patients

\n

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98

The lytic activity of marine bacteriophages is essential for the recycling of which nutrient into the marine environment?

\n

Carbon

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99

___________ is when a phage expresses genes that contribute to the virulence of the bacteria.

\n

Lysogenic conversion

\n

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100

Birds are a major vector of plant viruses.

\n

False

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